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Phenomenon out of logic
LEBEK, Bogusław:
Crop Circles - a phenomenon out of logic
crop circles
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Translated article http://wylatowo.pl/download/kregi_fenomen_poza_logika.pdf

It is a relatively objective look at the issue from the period before 2007. Over time, will be complemented by a more thorough commentary.

The full text is greatly influenced by some very subjective opinions of the author. Much better explanation of the issue, in terms of contemporary science and basic research, is for example here.

Author of the translation actually very strongly disagree with some parts, but decided not to intervene into it by any notes. Involves primarily the parts that touch the consideration of likely circle-makers activities.

A separate note deserved to alleged activities of Doug and Dave, who were only two perverted, degenerate parasites, liers, unemployed hangers that inside the fields of crops actually never bend even a straw, and all of their alleged activity just lied to journalists, who had been duped by them perfectly. For both parasites thus became very welcome source of income.

 

The Polish material: LEBEK, BogusławKregi zbożowe – fenomen poza logiką

Crop Circles - a phenomenon out of logic

1. introduction

2. History of crop circles

2.1 History of crop circles before coming circlemakers

2.1.1 Historical Documents of the IX. and XVII. century

2.1.2 Crop circles in the 50th XX years. century

2.1.3 "UFO nest" in Tully

2.1.4 The mysterious phenomena in Warminster

2.1.5 Crop circles and Billy Meier

2.2 The history of crop circles after the arrival of first circlemakers activity

2.2.1 Doug Bower and Dave Chorley bring to the phenomenon a new direction

2.2.2 Theory of Dr. Meaden mobilize circlemakers

2.2.3 The secret of the first circlemakers made public

2.2.4 Increasingly complex shapes of crop circle patterns

2.2.5 Controversial statements "80/20"

3. Research on crop circles

3.1 Scientific research

3.1.1 Are crop circles mystery to meteorologists?

3.1.2 The theory of atmospheric plasma W. C. Levengood

3.1.3 Model BoL of Eltjo Haselhoff

3.1.4 Meteoritic dust or joke of R. Irving

3.1.5 The critical work of the Italian skeptics

3.1.6 Erroneous opinion about the value of scientific work on crop circles

3.2 Other research methods of crop circles

3.2.1 Collection of eyewitness testimonies

3.2.2 Monitoring with the use of cameras

3.2.3 Film of Oliver's Castle

3.2.4 Specific circumstances during "Julia Set" origination

3.2.5 Energy detecteded by dowsers

3.2.6 Analysis of the geometry of crop circles

3.2.7 Diverse crop circles symbolism

3.2.8 Deciphering the code of "Milk Hill Script"

3.2.9 Detective work on the site

3.2.10 Anomalies accompanying crop circles

3.2.11 Orbs or illuminated particles of dust?

3.2.12 Light spheres and flashes of light

3.2.13 Tracking of circlemakers

4. Crop circles in Poland

4.1 The Polish history of crop circles

4.2 Wylatowo - authentic phenomenon or circlemakers work?

4.2.1 The geometric complexity of crop circles and elegance of their creation eliminates the possibility of a man using planks

4.2.2 The presence of many observers on the ground prevents to circlemakers create crop circles and stay unnoticed

4.2.3 Even if it was possible that crop circles were created by people, there is no reasonable target, which would compensate the effort and risk associated with such an action

4.2.4 In the pictures taken in the fields are seen orbs that are not visible to the naked eye, which confirms the presence of an unknown force

4.2.5 Numerous observations of light balls (called BoL - Ball of lights) confirm that in the case of pictograms is involved unknown force, and excludes activities of pranksters (simpletons, note J.L.)

4.2.6 Nancy Talbott from BLT Research has confirmed authenticity of most crop circles raised in 2003 during visit in Wylatowo

4.2.7 Research Jerzy Szymański and Adam Piekut excluded the possibility of creating crop circles by people

4.2.8 Formation of 30 crop circles in 2004 was established at a point monitored by cameras and just at the moment of their creation was captured unidentified powerful flash of light

5. Philosophy of circlemakers and a new look on the phenomenon of crop circles

5.1 The motivation of circlemakers

5.2 The philosophy of circlemakers

5.3 Psychological and sociological aspects

5.4 A new look at the phenomenon of crop circles

5.5 Question of the crop circle phenomenon future

 

1. introduction

The phenomenon of crop circles is regarded as the strangest secret of XX. century associated with the research of "mystery". The top of the popularity of this phenomenon accrue at the 80th years when the crop circles, resulting in the fields of English, became the center of attention of local media and subsequently the public interest. Long time were crop circles accepted in all seriousness, even if the apparent reluctance to accept everything with the label "unknown" or "paranormal". To be convinced of this, just write in the search engine the phrase "crop circles" and get a lot of archived articles on the subject, which are written in a very serious tone.

The beginning of the new millennium meant the down slow interest in crop circles worldwide. Of course, from the Polish perspective, it looks a little different. In Poland in 2000, when the first Wylatowo crop circles can be described as the beginning of interest in this phenomenon. Although the individual circles were created earlier, only the regularity of the appearance of crop circles in Wylatowo attract the growing number of scientists and enthusiasts. The attention devoted to this phenomenon by the Polish media, was unable compare with what happened in Great Britain - both with regard to the amount of information, especially as when it came to quality.

From the very beginning to the way of research and theories of the formation of crop circles in Poland had a great influence work performed on English fields of the previous 20 years. Contacts with foreign researchers (eg, Nancy Talbott arrival to Poland in the 2003 year at the invitation of the Nautilus Foundation) and the availability of information on the Internet have caused that, after a short time began to be regarded as icons of the Polish part of a global phenomenon.

In 2006, more and more talk about the decline phenomenon of crop circles. Crop circles in England appeared later and to a lesser amount than in previous years. It was similar in Poland. Even in the Wylatowo was discontinued series of crop circles annually appearing in the grain. Faded also a general interest in this phenomenon. One reason is the creation of crop circles by circlemakers with a commercial purpose (ordering television stations, newspapers and companies) to get rid of secret characteristics the phenomenon of circles. The geometric states complexity of the shape of these crop circles in trance those who argued that the grain in such large and complex shapes, plus a short time is beyond human capacity. In Poland, declassified circlemakers group called "Deskarze" ("plankers"), who presented the reasons for a crop circle in Mąkowarsko (which was the most complicated crop circle in Polish in 2006) and admitted to a few other pictographs in previous years (must be added that no of them did not come from Wylatowo and its surroundings).

Although last year (2006) did not bring anything good to the crop circle enthusiasts - thanks to release book "The Field Guide - the Art., History and Philosophy of Crop Circle Making" by Rob Irving - appeared to look at the phenomenon of crop circles by circlemakers eyes. People trampling the crop were mostly underestimated (to them were ascribed authorship with only a few and most unsuccessful crop circles) and as a forgers of the original phenomenon did not have a good reputation.

The leading researcher who took seriously their role in the development of this phenomenon, was Colin Andrews (doyen of circles researchers, the author of widely read books on this topic - "The Circular Evidence"). His meeting with leading circlemaker Rob Irving convinced him that a full understanding of this phenomenon, which he deals with, also require the experience of this group of people.

For many years prepared publications on the topic of crop circles mostly amateur UFO researchers. Most web pages describing this phenomenon are consistent in the conclusion that the form of crop circles are messages from alien civilizations. Arguments about the possibility of creation crop circle by activity of people are rejected with reference to scientific studies published on the website www.bltresearch.com. It gave a very one-sided picture of this phenomenon. About the crop circles were also negative expressing skeptics and circlemakers, and explorations BLT Research have met with many critical considerations. Similar unsubstantiated information then appear in great amount of material devoted to this phenomenon (web pages, books and films). For this reason, most versatile sources of information are the English internet forums, which represent all possible views of this phenomenon, expressed by enthusiasts, many years researchers, circlemakers and skeptics.

This work is the result of subjective evaluation resulting from the confrontation of arguments of all stakeholders in the crop circle phenomenon.

2. History of crop circles

History of crop circle can be divided into two phases, which are separated by the beginning of the first circlemakers activities (people making crop circles mechanically) - Doug Bower and Dave Chorley. The two friends had an influence on change in view of this phenomenon, characterized not only by the sudden increase in the number of crop circles, but also by increasing the order of their surfaces and geometric complexity.

2.1 History of crop circles before coming circlemakers

In addition to the initial stage of the crop circle phenomenon was certainly limited to just a natural phenomenon (not considered a human creation), but was not well described in a uniform manner. Inaccurate records from IX. and XVII. century were considered as the cause of the effect of crop circles supernatural forces (demons, devil), and better documented reports of the 50th and 60 of the last century, linking the phenomenon with a landing spacecraft - UFO.

2.1.1 Historical Documents of the IX. and XVII. century

The author of the first document relating to the crop circle phenomenon was bishop of Lyons Agobard living in IX. century. His life's mission became excommunication of superstitious (incompatible with Christian teaching) raised uneducated sections of society. Agobard reported that residents of the village looking for the causes of harmful atmospheric phenomena (hail storm) destroying crops in different kinds of evil spirits, who could influence the weather. The widespread belief in the regular visits Magonie people on Earth who are living in a remote place in heaven and dwell on our planet in ships from the clouds, which caused a strong storm. One symptom of Magonians presence was flattened crop.

The second document commemorating the crop circles in the past is the writing, dated August 22, 1678, whose title page is illustrated with woodcuts representing the figure of the devil mowing oats. Corn is mowed, and generally oval shape recalls the current crop circle. The documentary tells about the owner field, which offers assistance to a neighbor at harvest oats. During the meeting the owner of the field determined that the charge for the service is overpriced, angry and cancels contract with a neighbor the following words: "More like the devil miter oats to me than you." These words have proved prophetic, as the night over the course of fluorescence occurs and the next morning it appeared that oats were mowing in the shape of an oval with a precision that is beyond human capabilities.

In addition, Robert Plott mentioned in the book "Natural History of Staffordshire," published in 1686, sightings of strange light anomalies - among other things, very bright ball of light emerging at night, which certainly recalls the observation of the BoL (from ang. "Balls of Light" ) in connection with crop circles.

In historical sources is possible to also find such references, which show that crop circles are caused by people. French inquisitor Nicolas Remy in the work "Daemonolatreia" (or "Satan Cult") provides people dancing in the corn and leaving behind traces of round.

The above examples can be seen that in the past, crop circles were interpreted as the result of different dirty forces, which does not surprise us in respect to the historical context. Messages that we have available, not objective, because they have been signed a number of superstitions and religious influences. Imperfection of these reports makes it difficult to clearly confirm whether historical crop circles have been made in the same way as today.

2.1.2 Crop circles in the 50th XX years. century

How important is an accurate description of the crop circles, (which was lacking in the oldest messages) can be seen on the example of the events of the fifties XX. century.

In 1952 in Lamont Missouri was found a circle with a diameter of 5 meters on whose surface were found completely dry plants. Consequently, many people claimed that they were witnessing UFOs flying around even before the appearance of a character.

In 1954 in La Roche-Brenil in France was observed glowing object landing and on-site event was later found covered with oval something resembling ashes. In the same year in Wincanton in the U.S. were also seen UFOs a diameter of 15 meters with a metal surface and the next day he was discovered flattened circle of grass, which sometimes showed traces of burning.

2.1.3 "UFO nest" in Tully

Very often described in media was the case of incident in Tully, Australia in 1966. Event was witnessed by John Padley a farm employee. One January morning, drove the tractor toward the watering Horsehoe called Lagoon, when he heard a hissing sound that was so loud that it drowned out the engine noise of the tractor. John Padley in the first moment he thought that the sound source is blown tire. He jumped from the tractor and suddenly saw the object circling above the trees, saucer-shaped. After a while the unidentified object tilted slightly to the side and quickly flew away. Padley went to a place over which hung a flying object and noticed that in the dense reeds round dip with a diameter of about 10 meters, where the water is still bubbling. When the farmer along with the employer, who reported the incident, returned to the place saw the torn surface of plants with roots lying in a clockwise direction. The air smelled sulphurous smell.

After medial pressure the Tully incident became so famous that local authorities announced investigation into this matter. After its termination was declared the official version of events: Circles in the reeds were the result of air whirls that are often found in the vicinity. Ufologists however did not take note of this explanation, arguing that John Padley was a witness in a circle of reeds on a clear windless day. Also witness himself said that before he saw the wind of faith and they looked completely different than the object he saw on the day of the event.

The circles in the reeds found in Tully are so extraordinary that, having regard to the place of their occurrence is possible to exclude the possibility of a people (in other cases it is necessary to admit this). Can not be accepted the idea of clever to pull up the plant after the plant from the area with a diameter of 10 meters, especially when the reeds growing in the water 1.5 meters deep. The next phase of this task would be breakneck masterful storage plants into a spiral on the surface of water. Such a release did not consider even the biggest skeptics. The events of Tully were highly publicized, and as it turned out, later became the inspiration for the creations of the first circlemakers.

2.1.4 The mysterious phenomena in Warminster

Another interesting series of events related to the crop circles in Warminster in England occurred in 1964. Local press has reported about the strange phenomena in the local area - a mysterious, vibrating sounds whose source could not reveal, birds with no natural causes suddenly fell to the ground or the invisible energy that physically attacking people. After some time around or were observed transiting the horizon hovering balls of light or UFOs and the ultimate effect was the appearance of crop circles.

2.1.5 Crop circles and Billy Meier

It is well also to mention that in the seventies the crop circles appeared on a farm Billy Meier in Switzerland. Meier was convinced that it is in contact with visitors from the Pleiades star cluster. On the evidence of these meetings by a series of images and movies that one considered evidence of alien civilizations on Earth, and others as evident photomontage. Meier claimed that he witnessed how the ships round UFO leaving traces on the landing site. But in any film depicting the ships of the UFO phenomenon has not been captured.

If we summarize the history of crop circles before the first activity of actual circlemakers, it is necessary to take into account the following aspects:

2.2 The history of crop circles after the arrival of first circlemakers activity

Beginning in 1976 began to be a natural phenomenon crop circles imitated by people. The pair of the first circlemakers initially made a simple crop circles in form of a wheel. Their aim was mainly a faithful imitation of crop circles that have appeared in previous years and have been associated with UFO landing ships. Only after some time round flattened shapes have changed in a complicated crop circles began to be interpreted as a form of the message of a foreign civilization.

2.2.1 Doug Bower and Dave Chorley bring to the phenomenon a new direction

Turning point in crop circle phenomenon was the beginning of of the first cropmakers activities - Doug Bower (creator of ideas and the main inspirer) and Dave'a Chorley (faithful assistant).

In the summer of 1976 the two friends, which connected the artistic interests (1) and Friday's meetings in pot-house, decided to give the inhabitants of the surrounding ufological attraction. Using metal rods Doug and Dave marked out their first crop circle diameter of 10 meters (dimensions were such circles, which read in books ufological). The next morning, impatiently waiting for reaction which their first work produces. Day has passed and no one dealt with the topic of strange shapes in the crop. Also, the following circles were not discovered. The reason was prosaic - the flat terrain was not easy to perceive the circles. Perhaps attracted attention only at the time of harvest. Long time since its creation caused the circles to lose quality (bent stalks were partially straightened) and the farmers considered them as natural damage caused by the storm. Dave, who intend taking less enthusiastically than his friend, was already near it, to abandon the weekly expeditions. Doug Bower talked to him but one more test, this time select the location in the ground slightly deepened, so it was easier to see the crop circle. The decision proved to be correct and the message of two pranksters (2) obtained an attention. Doug and Dave every Friday (when they met in pub) create more circles and the phenomenon of the mysterious tracks in crop attracted increasing media attention and public interest.

First circlemakers from the beginning tried not to leave any traces in a row, so the field area attended in tracks following the tractor. The first tool was a metal rod. They moved on their knees, a rod pushed against crop and bent it. Over time, a simple device replaced the rod in the form of a plank attached with string to the two opposite ends. This allows to run the procedure in the standing position.

2.2.2 Theory of Dr. Meaden mobilize circlemakers

The initial popularity gained two theories about the origin of crop circles. The first of them quite match the intention of Doug Bower. Ufologists recalling the similar cases from 60 and 70 years interpreted the strange symbols in the crop as UFO landing traces. The media preferred to other, more scientific theory of Dr. Terrence Meaden, which assumed that crop circles are the result of a unique atmospheric phenomenon in the form of electrically charged vortex. Meadens scientific outlets very irritated Doug and Dave and to prove their inaccuracy, they decided to add into the main circle smaller. When Meaden corrected his theory to the new circumstances, the pair of pranksters (simpletons, note J.L.) used yet another changes - not only creating the shapes of circles, but also paths. By this means, thanks to Dr. Meaden (which of course was not aware about it), the individual circles have changed in an increasingly complex crop circles.

2.2.3 The secret of the first circlemakers made public

In 1992, Doug and Dave decided to publicly reveal their secrets. Doug Bower in the testimony contained in the book "The Field Guide" gives two reasons for this decision: First, his partner's health worsened the stepping and crop was associated with considerable physical effort. The second reason was associated with emergence of followers, attracted by the popularity of the phenomenon caused by the media. First copied Doug and Dave'a circles, but then went a step further and in 1990 created a complex pictograph, who overcame everything until then produced. This crop circle was even used on the cover hits collection known rock group Led Zeppelin. Doug and Dave discovered that will never be able to reach the quality of competition and that it is the best time to terminate their activity and secret revelations.

History circlemakers of the first is described on the "Today", under the title "The Men Who conned the World" ("Men who cheat the world"). The article, of course, provoked a storm among researchers of crop circles. Proportion of people regarded the whole mystery of the explanations and lost interest in this phenomenon. Others thought sensation Doug and Dave'a as part of the intelligence services disinformation to divert attention from the real essence of the phenomenon. First circlemakers, however, submitted evidence both about the ability of producing crop circles, and that their activities carried out for many years (as a photographic documentation) (3).

2.2.4 Increasingly complex shapes of crop circle patterns

Termination of Activity of the first circlemakers however had no negative effect on the occurrence of this phenomenon. Rather the opposite - not only increased the number of crop circles, but also their size and geometric complexity. When Doug and Dave were asked to demonstrate their abilities, created a crop circle both in terms of geometric complexity and quality of lodged crop, seemed to be someone completely different than newly formed, perfectly created crop circles. This comparison gave rise seen emerging crop circles as a result of action of unknown forces with the creative possibilities of the human capacity considerably in excess. To that helped also reports of anomalies accompanying crop circles which usually refer to short and intense flashes of light above the field, light ball flights and failure of electronic devices. Although researchers had in mind a famous article in "Today" and took into account work of circlemakers, authorship attributed to them only the least precious crop circles (with spikes laid carelessly or obvious errors in the implementation).

2.2.5 Controversial statements "80/20"

To what extent was the publication of press reports on the activities of Doug and Dave on the "Today" for a number of supporters of the theory, treating crop circles as the creation of a foreign civilization, a severe blow from their own ranks, the more in 2000, was subjected to doubt their beliefs through the most famous scholars of the phenomenon Colin Andrews. As a result of an investigation led by example, employ a detective, published the conclusion that at least 80% of English crop circles is made up by circlemakers. What's more - Andrews argued that "real" crop circles have usually the simplest geometry. This conclusion was in stark contrast to the previously prevailing view. Most explorers have considered the principle that the more complex crop circle, the less likely that it was created by man. Limits of forming circlemakers ability was estimated well below the capabilities needed to create complex shapes of crop circles. Also, the ratio of 80/20 in favor of man-made crop circles were opposed to the current estimate among others leaning against the results of the investigations of Dr. Levengood from BLT Research (estimated that about 5% of the crop circles are the work of man). In light of these circumstances is not surprising that Adrews statement was met with disbelief and even outrage.

The following years, however, showed that Andrews was quite right - circlemakers ability role in the phenomenon of of crop circles were indeed strongly underestimated. In the new millennium came the popularity of a new form of advertising. Well-known companies such as Nike or media prepared advertisements mentioning a mysterious phenomenon of crop circles. In the fields were created mainly master symbols generated by a group of "circlemakers" (famous for its website www.circlemakers.org) or Matt Williams. It has become clear that complex crop circles can be obtained by various combinations of circles and lines, and circlemakers are not only skilled, but also artists developing new art form.

Summing up the history of of crop circles since the beginning of of the first action of forming circlemakers ability regularly, it should be noted the following aspects:

3. Research on crop circles

Attention paid by the media to the crop circles has attracted many people who have decided to investigate this phenomenon on their own. Most dreamed of becoming a eyewitnesses of the moment of crop circle creation. The English fields in a place of usual occurrence of crop circles attended growing group of enthusiasts of this phenomenon. Also was tested the deployment of cameras with the aim of continuously monitoring and recording of difficult catchable phenomenon. Have appeared people with a mission to document the interviews with eyewitnesses, as well as the formation of crop circles and mysterious anomalies accompanying this phenomenon. Another tried to decipher the message contained in the geometry of crop circles. Also, scientists were involved in solving this puzzle. The popularity of the phenomenon attracted to debate not only enthusiasts, but even skeptics (eg CICAP Italian organization) who tried to prove that the crop circles phenomenon has a simple rational explanation.

Research of crop circles was carried out by many people and by different methods. Unfortunately, were not coordinated and often were not properly documented. Therefore, is possible really only refer to a part of them, mainly from scientific publications.

3.1 Scientific research

Scientific researches of crop circles initiated in the 80s of the last century, Dr. Terence Meaden. His theory later developed W.C. Levengood from BLT Research. Critical commentary on the Levengood's work and subsequently modified theory proposed by Dr. Eltjo Haselhoff of competing organizations - CCCS. The work of the latter two scientists (two Levengood's and one Haselhoff's) were published on the website of the journal "Physiologia Plantarum". "In many works on the subject of crop circles mentioned as the main argument that some of crop circles formed due to the complex phenomenon involving electromagnetic energy. In contrast, little is known critical comments about the articles written by skeptics from the Italian organization CICAP and publisher Physiologia Plantarium opinion "on the topic of this dispute.

3.1.1 Are crop circles mystery to meteorologists?

From the very beginning media (especially those that are considered serious) preferred scientific comment of crop circles phenomenon before ufologist claims to land spacecraft (which dominated in 60th-80th years of XX century) or the foreign expeditions of Civilizations (starting years of 90th .)

3.1.2 The theory of atmospheric plasma W. C. Levengood

In the eighties many newspapers quoted Dr. Terence Meaden, who reported that he managed to solve the mystery of crop circles by using meteorological information. Thus Meaden thought that patterns in crop are result of electrically charged air vortices. It is well to emphasize that the scientist who formulated these ideas, took no account of the possibility of creating crop circles by people who at that time worked in complete secrecy. When in the fields instead of one circle began to appear more, Meaden tried his theory correct. But when the phenomenon began to develop towards an elaborate crop circles, the scientist had noted that the explanation of the puzzle using meteorological explanations ceased come to mind.

In 1994 aforementioned magazine published an article of W. C. Levengood under the headline "Anatomical anomalies in plants located in the crop circles." The author described therein anomalies such as swollen nodes of wheat stalks, extension and flexion of nodes, changes in germination of seeds collected from crop circle for control test. Levengood said that the plants examined by him show signs of considerable turbulence showing the influence of air ionization, electric and magnetic fields and short-term increase in temperature. He proposed that these effects were caused by plasma turbulence.

At this point it is necessary to give some explanations of natural phenomena. Plasma is ionized gas with a correspondingly high concentration of charged particles in the form of ions and electrons. The plasma is strongly repelled by an external magnetic and electric field. It is also a good conductor of electricity. In the state of the plasma is located more than 99% of matter in the universe (if we consider that part which is accessible to human observation). In terrestrial conditions occurs only rarely. Possible meet it during atmospheric discharges, combustion, in an electric arc or discharge lamps. Earth's atmospheric plasma occurs exceeding 50 km from the sea level, in a layer known as ionosphere.

Levengood said that such an atmospheric plasma vortex is attracted to Earth's surface and causes anomalies discovered by him. On the formulation of such hypotheses had undoubtedly influence research of crop circles that appeared in Cherhill in England in 1993 (the year before publishing the article). According to Levengood's research in the tissue of some plants, was melted iron glass, which was composed from particles of meteoritic origin. Described crop circle was created in August at the time of occurrence of showers Perseids. As is known, meteorites following penetration into the Earth's atmosphere burn up and into the atmosphere get only a fine meteor dust particles. Levengood also inferred that such particles have been attracted by a plasma vortex descending from the upper atmosphere due to influence of strong magnetic field. Meteoritic dust particles were melted by microwaves before the plasma vortex reaching the earth's surface. The ultimate effect was the creation of crop circles and an anomaly in the form of meteoritic glass sealed into plant tissues.

Other Levengood's article (co-author was Nancy Talbott) appeared in 1999 under the headline "Dispersion of energies in worldwide crop formations" The author has concluded that more than 95% of crop circle shapes were established as a cause of atmospheric plasma turbulences. Also proved, that the anomalies in the form of stalk nodes extension can not be explained on the basis of phototropism and gravitropism. To the article published in 1994, opinions were heard that stalks of grain pressed to the ground are naturally turning to the light (while using growing abilities of stalk nodes), which leads to their flexion and extension. Levengood referred to the experiment with formation of cereals into the circle shape with planks. Additions of the stalk nodes length measured by him were around 2% a day.

Levengood compared small increments of the length of stalk nodes in the test circle (created using boards) with formations, which he regarded as authentic. The subject of his analysis were simple three circles from Devizes and Sussex (England), and Chechalis (USA), and complex spiral shape of crop circle from Beckhampton. After three days from the appearance of crop circles extension of stalk nodes in their interior oscillated between 30 and 200%. Reasoned, that such a large change in no case could be the result of natural processes that are taking place inside the crop circles, created by the planks.

Levengood, therefore, did not confine himself to a simple statement that cereal stalk nodes inside crop circles are greatly extended in comparison with the control specimen next to the crop circle, but also noticed a dependence between the length of stalk nodes and distances from the center of the crop circle (5). According to his measurements, the length of stalk nodes gradually diminished from inside to outside, in accordance with the electromagnetic energy absorption according to Beer-Lambert law. By that Levengood submitted an even stronger argument than in the first publication, that such anomalies of plants preclude their bending with planks.

3.1.3 Model BoL of Eltjo Haselhoff

The last study on crop circles released in a scientific journal was published in 2001. Its author was Eltjo Haselhoff and formally it was a comment of Levengood and Talbott article from 1999. In fact, the author focused to comment only the first part of his study and in the second developed his own theory.

Haselhoff criticized authors of the 1999 article two errors in the data analysis. This proved that the model of electromagnetic radiation proposed by Levengood was wrong and replaced it with his own. He showed that not the atmospheric plasma vortex touching the ground, but the point source of radiation located at a certain height above the field had to be responsible for the absorption of radiation in such a manner that resulted from the analysis of samples collected by Levengood. Haselhoff adopted for his model name BOL (acronym for Ball of Ligt - Ball Lightning). Such unidentified balls of light were apparently observed in the vicinity of the occurrence of crop circles and some witnesses claimed that it is the the cause that create crop circles.

Haselhoff then proved the correctness of his theory in the article placed on the website of the organization, which conducted - CCCS (Centre for Crop Circle Studies). He mentioned the case from Holland, where a witness observed a ball that hung above the field. Later there was found a crop circle. After entering the relevant data obtained from samples collected from crop circle into his model BoL Haselhoff calculated the spherical radiation source was located just at that altitude, which set the witness. It was another argument for the correctness of the model.

3.1.4 Meteoritic dust or joke of R. Irving

From the Levengood's reports were the most demanding to the imagination, which concerned findings meteoritic dust in the crop circle in Cherhill (as described above). This seemed to confirm the hypothesis that the formation of crop circles is responsible the atmospheric plasma vortex. Levengood's breakthrough discovery was contradicted a year later. One of the most famous circlemakers Rob Irving reportedly said that he created the formation in Cherhill and scattered in selected locations of the circle iron filings. In the autumn in London, Irving introduced the bottles coming from the chemical laboratory of the University in Oxford, which sent him his friend. Irving suggested content compared with glass bottles found in crop circle in Cherhil. In 1995 he wrote an open letter to Levengood from BLT Research, and proposed a re-examination carried out by independent institutions. The challenge remains, however, without a response (in addition to challenges of known researcher Montague Keen to be taken seriously).

In 1999 he heard about the whole thing one scientist, Rodney Ashby and decided himself to reveal the essence of strange dusting in a circle in Cherhill. Immediately after receipt of the samples started with the analyzes and in 2001 published his first report on this topic. From the very beginning Ashby was aware of the Rob Irving statement. But after a preliminary analysis of samples the scientist excluded that the glass investigated by him could arise from scattered iron filings, and whereas marked the notice of circlemaker untrue. At the same time, however, Ashby questioned Levengood's view that the sample examined by him was created from molten meteoritic dust.

Shortly after publishing the report Ashby established correspondence with the alleged author of Crop Circles Rob Irving. Thanks to that Ashby received to research the contents of bottles from the chemical laboratory. It turned out that what Irving mistakenly called the iron filings were in fact iron dust. What the layman not of great importance to scientists was a significant difference. In light of new findings Rodney Ashby undertake a new analysis finally decided to rate as true the version introduced by Irving. Details of this analysis is possible to find at http://www.xstreamscience.org/H_Glaze/H_Glaze_0.htm. There is for example image representing bottles with iron dust. Attached mail form confirming the date of submission and the address of the sender and recipient.

To understand how the glass was established, it is necessary to know the the circumstances of its finding, which was not mentioned in Levengood's work. To the strange conclusion persuaded pair of researchers Peter Sorensen and Busty Tylor. At the time of the route through the fields have noticed a different surface the field after slanted corn. It looked like the remains of crop circle. Observers have noticed that both the ground and on the remains of flattened ears are found special brown dusting. The owner of the field told them that before the emergence of crop circle was raining heavily. He confirmed also that weird coating observed only at the time of harvest and could not find any meaningful explanation of that phenomenon.

Ashby in repair to his work explained that the iron powder spilled by Irving first corroded due to rain, and later was forced into the plant by the harvester working in the field. Confirming that the formation, within that was found a special dusting was indeed the work of Irving was shot (schema of the formation visible from the road) which circlemaker presented. Since the circle was found after mowing crop, this was the reason that Irving was at that point before the announcement of the whole thing.

3.1.5 The critical work of the Italian skeptics

In 2005 Francesco Grassi, Claudio Cocheo and Paolo Russo from the Italian skeptics CICAP organization published a critical commentary of Hasselhoff's article from 2001 and indirectly also earlier Levengood's work from BLT Research. The full version of the report is possible to find at http://www.cicap.org/crops/jse_19-2-159-170_2005.pdf. The essence of work is that the theory of electromagnetic radiation on the participation in the process of creation of crop circles is not fully supported by evidence. The authors point out such errors as:

Critical considerations of the Italian skeptics were sent to "Physiologia Plantarum" (the magazine, which published articles of and Haselhoff Levengood). Publishers of the journal entirely shared the doubts of authors. But they decided not to publish their work, and justified their decision by reluctance to redistribute again this theme in their magazine. This is confirmed by letter sent to CICAP whose content is available on site http://www.cicap.org/crops/en/013.htm.

Haselhoff published after some time an answer to criticism of the Italian skeptics. As the main defensive argument applied that the article should be taken only as an introduction to serious debate and that it was character of comments and not of scientific work. Most of all factual allegations remained silent and did not even later notwithstanding his assurances. Objective analysis of the arguments used by Haselhoff and CICAP members only leads to one conclusion: a critique of the Italian skeptics were very accurate and convincing (as finally confirmed the publisher of "Physiologia Plantarum"").

3.1.6 Erroneous opinion about the value of scientific work on crop circles

Among the supporters of crop circles, there is a general perception that the work of Dr. Levengood from BLT Research and Eltjo Haselhoff from competing organizations CCCS scientifically prove that the formation of of crop circles (at least part of it) is causing a mysterious phenomenon that manifests itself among other things, a strong emission of electromagnetic radiation. Unfortunately, little are known critical comments to these works, both by skeptics as well as from curious supporters of crop circles who acknowledge doubts about the seriousness of this research.

In fact scientific studies of crop circles are more or less at zero point. So far have not produced any credible answer to the fundamental question how to distinguish mechanically man-made circles from those that are considered to be the result of action of unknown forces.

3.2 Other research methods of crop circles

Due to the fact that few scientists were willing to risk their reputation for research phenomenon labeled as paranormal, rising to the puzzle of crop circles mostly ordinary people who had no special training in biology or physics. Furthermore, are mentione the most popular methods of such studies and their results.

3.2.1 Collection of eyewitness testimonies

Once the phenomenon of crop circles became known thanks to media interest, the dream of many followers of this phenomenon was eyewitness observations of the right origination time of crop circles. Most persistent of them spent many days in the fields where the most frequently appeared crop circles, with the hope of seeing the mysterious creator in action.

Using Internet posible find dozens of reports describing the moment of crop circles creation, or strange events that preceded their creation. Of course, in the case of such reports is the main problem the question of their credibility. Can not be sure whether witnesses were telling the truth and if so, whether their observations do not derive from a bad interpretation of natural phenomena.

Eyewitnesses referring to different circumstances during emergence of crop circles. Some described UFO sending a laser beam in the direction of the field. Others described a big red ball, that during the descent to the level of several meters above the ground aired an invisible energy causing immediate crop flattening. Other reports relate to rather small white ball moving above the grain, like in the famous film from Oliver's Castle. There are also mentions of the light turbulence of energy, and also a strong sound without any visual effects, that created a crop circle in a split second. As is seen from the above examples, the reports are very different and it is very difficult to find in them some common characteristics. (4)

3.2.2 Monitoring with the use of cameras

Researchers crop circles thought, that to get public opinion on the side of the origin of the mysterious circles is needed some stronger evidence than just the verbal testimony of eyewitnesses. Desire of's most famous crop circle researcher Colin Andrews became mainly capture the exact moment of the crop circle emergence using the camera.

The first test took place in 1989 under the code name "White Crow". Groups led by the famous explorer deployed cameras recording images 24 hours a day in such a way that their scope covered the area known frequent occurrence of crop circles. Unfortunately, the circle then appeared in another place outside camera range. Its creation at the end after years admitted Doug Bower.

The next summer, Andrews decided to further test the capture of the time when originating the crop circles. "Operation Blackbird" in its scope exceeded the previous test. Andrews it organized jointly with BBC TV and Nippon TV. On the site also helped the British Army. All this testifies to the fact what importance was then attached to the mystery of crop circles. Cameras and thermal imaging devices were placed on the mound White Horse Hill, and thanks to that was monitored a fairly wide margin. Colin Andrews could not be due to other commitments at the point of observation, but was ready to come immediately in the event of unusual phenomena.

One morning, Andrews got the long awaited report. Volunteers participating in Operation Blackbird morning saw camera in the monitored by area a crop circle. Andrews immediately went to the site of the event. On the way the arranged for live input for the BBC and a hastily convened press conference to tell the world that the originating process of crop circles was finally recorded. Andrews was informed by telephone that a preliminary analysis of the film material showed the discovery of mysterious lights around 3.30 hours. Shortly after arrival at the place the promised entry recorded televised live by the BBC. Excitedly talked about the filmed material, and that crop circles could never be created by pranksters in such a way strictly protected area.

Andrews along with his close associate Delgado and BBC cameraman descended the hill and arrived at the crop circles. Unfortunately, to spot showed that Andrews did not live the day of triumph, but the pain of defeat. In the center of each from 6 circles from which the crop circles was composed, were found board games The Zodiac, the form of business cards, which left there circlemakers. Journalists invited to the press conference were thus witnessing the collapse of Operation Blackbird. Andrews long wondered how the jokers magically managed to create crop circles in so perfectly monitored space. His suspicions fell upon the British army, which participated in the operation. Andrews claimed, that it was a test, and that it was an attempt to discredit the phenomenon which has attracted much of interest in public opinion. Explanation of course, could be more prosaic. Eventually it became clear that the volunteers on the hill were the people who turned from proponents of the natural formation of crop circles to their creators. If they knew the location of cameras and the terrain surveying techniques, they found the right place and time in order to make crop circles on place failing to monitor.

3.2.3 Film of Oliver's Castle

After unsuccessful Andrews trials many supporters of natural way of creating crop circles significantly wavered in the conviction that this phenomenon is caused by something other than jokers. In 1996 occurred a video that seemed to forever silence all the skeptics and return the faith in the mysterious origin of the circles of those who lost it. This sensational material was allegedly recorded from Oliver's Castle hill by a man who introduced himself as John Weyleigh. The short film featured a balls of light that moved over the cereals and shaped them into crop circles. The captured scene corresponded orally transmitted eyewitness reports of alleged witness sighting of crop circles, which so far no one trusted with regard to the lack of evidence.

The film material has been presented to scientists on the same day when the crop circle was discovered, which meant a long time the basic argument of recording autencity. Experts on the special effects estimated that even if the film can be fake, the time required for its construction prevents the demonstration on the same day, in which was discovered a crop circle.

Unfortunately, also in this case was not appreciated the human creativity. Detailed investigations conducted simultaneously by Colin Andrews and Peter Sorensen led to question the mystery and finding the creator of the material, which at some point fell to the ground. He was identified as an employee of First Cut studios that specialized in special video effects. The offender eventually pleaded guilty to mystification and Rob Irwing in the book "The Field Guide," said the reconstruction of a version of circlemakers events who participated in this hoax and have created a crop circle corresponding to the supplied special effects studio.

More detailed information on described events can be found in the article History of the famous film "The Olivers Castle" http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=298&dzial=Piktogramy

3.2.4 Specific circumstances during "Julia Set" origination

Since there is no credible material that would capture the moment of crop circle formation, to authors of books on the subject of crop circles referred frequently the circumstances of creation of the crop circle "Julia Set", which had clearly ruled out the possibility of creating by circlemakers. It is assumed that the crop circle as one of the few appeared in the daytime and not at night. To one of the researchers entered the witness who claimed that when he crossed in a small plane as a passenger the birthplace of the crop circle, did not notice anything special. Forty minutes later, drove around the same place by car along the highway and saw an elaborate crop circle. Also guards employed in the area of Stonehenge on the other side of the highway or the driver who drove through here during the day, noticed nothing suspicious. Crop circle was discovered unexpectedly in the evening.

Also in this case, growing doubts, whose tracks can be found on the official website devoted to the crop circles. Particularly sharp debate on the circumstances of this crop circles finding has been on the forum on the www.cropcircleconnector.com.

Arrangement of field survey and verification of of some facts with the source caused that the history of the discovery of the crop circle is not so clear. Whether they really appeared in less than 40 minutes, it is a question in the discussion. It is well to add that the well-known researcher Paul Vigay, who was among the first on-site events, crop circle appeared close much worse than when it was observed on aerial photographs. According to him, this crop circle was work of circlemakers. Local representative Rod Dickinson finally admitted in one of the statements that he knows people who created the symbol and that they did it during the previous night. The character has been discovered throughout the day until evening. How it was, in fact, it is clearly difficult to decide. However, it is good to know that the views of researchers of crop circles in this case are ambiguous.

3.2.5 Energy detecteded by dowsers

For years, popular method of distinguishing "authentic" crop circles (created by an unknown force) from man made crop circles is the use of dowsing rods or rocker arm. Dowsers feel in some crop circles very strong energy and consider it as an evidence of "authenticity" of crop circles. Methods of measurement are different, some dowsers perform measurements only on the crop circle site, others say that they just need only a photo of the crop circle.

It is interesting that "circlemakers" on their web page advise their followers to use dowsing rods and oriented crop circle according to so called "ley lines". This is to achieve a good sense of people who visit a crop circle and also a positive authentication by dowsers. It is possible also ask whether the energy which dowsers find inside crop circles, is actually a result of action of unknown forces (mostly are created hypotheses about extraterrestrial intelligence) or due to actual crop circle geometry and its position with regard to the hypothetical "ley lines" .

Many people also report substantial doubt that alone energy measurement using a dowsing rod method is not objective and is therefore not possible to verify the authenticity of crop circles.

3.2.6 Analysis of the geometry of crop circles

Another field of research of crop circles is the analysis of their geometry. Some people found in crop circles so called golden section, (presented by the number 1.618, which is ubiquitous in nature), and other hidden numbers (associated with the distances in the solar system, with biblical events, etc.). According to the authors of these works can be information so masterfully encoded in the crop circles that exclude them to be created by jokers. However, there are at least two ways to explain these certainly unusual findings.

Rob Irving in the book "The Field Guide" shows an example of geometric analysis by John Mitchell the crop circle in Barbury Castle, which was presented at a conference in Glastonbury in 1991. Mitchel through the analysis of crop circle proportions in it discovered a number of hidden and symbolic meanings. The whole explanation sounded convincing, but as stated Irwing, the error was that the dimensions used for research were not accurate, so all conclusions derived from them lose their credibility, and wake suspicion of deliberately adapting them to the previously accepted theory.

Of course is not possible automatically assume that all of similar type of analysis were based on inaccurate dimensions. Circlemakers in search of inspiration for their projects studied the literature on the geometry and some structures relied on the Fibonacci equation. Possible mention at this point for example "desert pictogram", which originated in the desert of southeast Oregon and perfectly displayed the geometrically complex Hindu mandala Sri Yantra. It turned out that the author was an unconventional artist Bill Witherspoon, who showed that even with the simplest tools one is able to make things on the glance and by experts appearances impossible. Very detailed information on this topic can be found in the article "The symbolism of crop circles" in http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=346&dzial=Piktogramy.

3.2.7 Diverse crop circles symbolism

What were the early crop circles more similar to a common circle and were explained as natural phenomena or trace of the UFO landing facility, the more gradually increased in the geometric complexity of crop circles seemed to be a signal that it is a form of message from the mysterious creators.

During many years, the group emerged crop circles on a similar theme:

- which relate to universe and alien civilizations

In this group are the most famous crop circles from the Chibolton Crabwood 2001 and 2002. The first is related to communication, which included basic data on human civilization and were deployed in Arecibo telescope in 1974. Crop circle has been formulated as a form of response from the aliens and contained basic information about a foreign civilization.

Formation of 2002 on the other hand featured the alien's face in a similar way as a mass culture, with the discs, which resembled a CD on which was written using the ASCII message for mankind.

Images and analysis of these two crop circles from Paul Vigay can be found on http://www.cropcircleresearch.com/articles/arecibo.html and http://www.cropcircleresearch.com/articles/alienface.html

- drawing inspiration from fractals

In this group is the most famous pictogram Julia set, which was not far from Stonehenge (the other side of the highway) or the Mandelbrot Set. Particularly impressive images of the first the formation may be seen on the page http://www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/1996/uk1996ay.shtml

- Imitating the third dimension and causing an optical illusions of the observer

An example of this group may be the 2000 formation of East Kennet and near Woodborough Hill or 2006 crop circle of Waylands Smithy. Photos and brief description of the two first mentioned are available at http://www.circlemakers.org/totc2000.html

- Referring to the symbolism of ancient cultures

A typical representative of this kind is a crop circle found in the field near Silbury Hill in 2004. With frames made up from an aircraft can be seen that it was created in two phases. The film made after the first night of work on crop circles shows only outline of the design and then the next night was a crop circle accompanied by details. This type of the crop circle design, construction first line and the curve and then the remaining details, shows circlemakers authorship. An additional confirmation were (certainly unintentionally) markers left there - a cardboard round cut marks - used in the construction of symbols by creators. Traces of circlemakers activity producing these formations can be seen in the photos presented on page (not functioning yet, note J. L.) http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?id=2152.

3.2.8 Deciphering the code of "Milk Hill Script"

Part of the crop circles have a form that seemed to be a kind of hidden message. Some proponents of this phenomenon believed to be a message sent by a foreign civilization to humanity and they tried decipher the message. Everything was fine until these tests were considered merely a subjective interpretation of the author or a form of inspiration for creative thinking. Worse than that was that some observers were trying to establish themselves into the role of experts in the "language of crop circles" and literally translate their meaning.

The need for distance themselves from their own tests convinced experts in translating unusual formations called "Milk Hill Script", which look more like messages written in a strange language..

The first person who reported decryption of the message was by Michael Green. According to him it was a message written in an archaic form of Hebrew language and meant "Creator - wise and loving." A little later appeared competing interpretations of Professor Gerald Hawkins (author of famous book "Stonehenge Decoded"). A complex examining led Hawkins to the conclusion that the author of the crop circle message encoded using Latin, and was, therefore, "I refuse to make fraud and deception." Another expert, a Danish scientist Robert Boerman walking down the Green footsteps and found that the message is written in Hebrew. In the analysis of mirror symmetry of the crop circle discovered a new message "new human race."

The real meaning of "Milk Hill Script" explains the book "The Field Guide". In fact, this unusual crop circle message contained not in the archaic Hebrew or in Latin, but English only. In order to make reading more difficult crop circle creators made only the lower half of the inscription. After adding the top half of the inscription, as can be checked in the picture, appears message "Meaden talks shit" or "crap Meaden says" It should be noted that Meaden was the first scientist who announced the mystery of deciphering crop circles when he said that in their formation corresponds to a unique natural phenomenon.

3.2.9 Detective work on the site

Most opinion on the authenticity of crop circles was the result of activities that can be described as detective work on the site of the phenomenon. They consist of an analysis of bending the crop stalks method, evaluation crop circles and the time needed to create, if theoretically assumed that were created by humans.

In the early research of crop circles, it was assumed that even the simplest in any case could not be created by man. Over time, when circlemakers activity ceased to be secret, to them were attributed the simplest and least precious crop circles. Only relatively recently fell through commercially formed crop circles the myth that the biggest and most complex crop circles lies beyond human possibilities..

Often mentioned argument for the authenticity of crop circles was the circumstance that arose in the place, which was guarded by researchers and fans of this phenomenon. If remembered the Blackbird operation described above, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of circlemakers infiltration to the group observing field. Finally, many of them came from former researchers of the phenomenon and best-known example is Peter Sorensen.

In the case of land damage or broken cereals cobs differences between crop circles may not also characterize the boundary between authentic formations and those created by circlemakers. According to Rob Irving from "circlemakers" is the most important factor for obtaining the effect of making the correct crop circle choice of right kind of corn growing in the corresponding period. Only then Irving mentions the practical experience and properly shaped board. It must therefore be taken into account, that the differences in the quality of produced crop circles may be caused by the different groups of circlemakers formed, or the same group, but in another kind of crop or other growing season.

Here could possibly fit a brief quote from the information given in an article "Badania kręgów zbożowych w Anglii" (Exploration of crop circles in England) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?dzial=Badania&art=283. There was referred slightly outdated materials of to Colin Andrews, which reported that the sign of authenticity of crop circles is a way of laying the staks, which he described as "signature swirl ". According to him, circlemakers never managed to use this method in their crop circles. Also in this case, time has shown that it is not an ideal method of evaluating the authenticity of crop circles, because the circlemakers repertoire proved to be much wider than they had expected.

The main error, which occurred during so called detective research was an underestimation of skills and efforts of circlemakers. The fact that the layman can also create a simple circle in crops take a long time does not mean that people with experience in this direction will expend the same effort. They show that films made in England, covering the work of several circlemakers on a complex crop circles for no longer than 4-5 hours.

3.2.10 Anomalies accompanying crop circles

People, who visit crop circles, occasionally speak about various strange anomalies: damage to electrical devices, batteries and accumulators discharge, improperly functioning compass, unidentified crackling sounds inside crop circles, observing light balls and unusual feelings of people inside the circle.

Observations of this type were long regarded as an argument confirming the fact that crop circles were created mechanically by people, but somehow mysteriously, certainly with share of electromagnetic energy.

The more was so interesting testimony of Colin Andrews, who as a result of knowledge work of circlemakers convinced that such anomalies also appeared in the circles created by humans.

It is possible to take two explanations for this. Either they did not appear at all described anomaly (such as electrical equipment failure caused by some sort of prosaic cause and erroneously, it is considered that it has to do with crop circles) or were result of these anomalies itself geometry of crop circles, regardless of who is created. This latter was considered as a possible wife of Colin Andrews Cynthia.

3.2.11 Orbs or illuminated particles of dust?

Another type of anomalies, which raises a lot of controversy between supporters of crop circles were so called orbs. In the pictures taken inside and around crop circles appear balls (orbs English) white color, which at the time of the shooting were not observed. In the beginning were interpreted as evidence of the existence of some mysterious power, and speculated about their connection with the formation of crop circles.

Soon, however, showed that "orbs" appear in many photographs, regardless of the location and circumstances of their acquisition. Manufacturers of digital cameras, explained that the most common cause of this effect is the illumination of dust particles, rain drops and snow flakes by the photo flash, which is located close to the lens. Předseda CCCS, one of the most famous organizations investigating crop circles, many urged that such images were not presented as evidence of a mysterious energy in the vicinity of crop circles. He argued that it would adversely affect the credibility of the whole community of researchers of crop circles. His appeals had little effect. Many Internet portals increasingly publish images with "orbs", similar images were published in a recent report of Nancy Talbott from the Netherlands and considered leaving BLT Research (currently represented only by Nancy Talbott) from the scientific research methodology.

3.2.12 Light spheres and flashes of light

What easier and more prosaically may be explained the "orbs" invisible to the naked eye, the more puzzling issues are light anomalies observed with the naked eye, light spheres transiting in a different height, short and very strong flashes of light. Descriptions of light spheres observed above fields resemble the phenomenon examined several times and captured on films and photographs by scientists in Hessdalen in Norway. The multiannual scientific project that there takes place can be read on the page www.hessdalen.org/index_e.shtml.

3.2.13 Tracking of circlemakers

At the end will be well to mention the initiative of Collin Andrews, who found that to achieve the true identification of authentic crop circles would be appropriate to enter into the environment of circlemakers methods and know their business. It was more important that circlemakers following pioneers of this activity famous couple Doug and Dave held their work in secret and did not confess to the authorship of specific crop circles.

Andrews met for the purpose, among other things with the front circlemaker Rob Irving and met his eyes to phenomenon of circles from his perspective. Also tried to reach the people who knew of these unusual methods of working artists. With money obtained from Rockefeller, multimillionaire supporting the exploration of crop circles, he could hire for that purpose a private detective. As a result of knowledge acquired by Colin Andrews gave a controversial theory 80/20, so that at least 80% of the crop circles are the work of circlemakers, which was in conflict with estimates of dr. Levengood from BLT Research, who marginalized the incidence of people made crop circles and estimated them at 5% of all occurrences. What greater criticism Andrews testimony occured during the time of publication from the public, who did not believe in such a large proportion of circlemakers on the phenomenon, the more over time increased in credibility. The situation changed crop circles created on request of print, television, well known companies serving as a form of atypical advertising. It was clear that circlemakers had knowledge and experience through many years of making crop circles..

In summary, it is necessary to confirm that various attempts at crop circle research did not lead to the adoption of credible criteria that would allow to distinguish crop circles created by people from those described as authentic, thus created by a hypothetical unknown force. There is no conclusive evidence that any of the complex crop circle was created by a process other than the physical bending of crop stalks. Materials called undisputed evidence, that are used in movies and literature dealing with the theme of crop circles, like a film from Oliver's Castle or scientific work demonstrating the presence of meteoritic dust in crop circles are either the result of falsification (film) or errors in surveys (Levengood's report).

The belief that complex crop circles are a message from an unknown force (usually associated with an extraterrestrial civilization) may therefore be very difficult to verify, through mere eyewitnesses describing different ways of formation crop circles.

If we should take seriously unconfirmed theory of Dr. Meaden and W. C. Levengood from BLT Research, that authentic crop circles are the result of electrified air turbulence, then we should find traces of this phenomenon in the usual crop circles, rather with irregular edges than in intricately made crop circles with complex sophisticated geometries. Such a simple crop circles formed sporadically from time immemorial, even before the first circlemakers activities. Remains an open question whether these crop circles are a result of the work of the turbulence (such a hypothesis submitted skeptics in the case of the phenomenon in Tully), or unique and previously unknown atmospheric phenomenon, or traces left by an unidentifiable flying objects (as claimed by the witness of the event in Tully). When they began to appear more complex crop circles, simple shapes, single crop circles have ceased to be a matter of interest, and therefore since then about the primary phenomenon which was the model for the first circlemakers, we know only a little.

Findings presented here reflect the views of Pat Delgado, co-author of widely read books on the subject of crop circles. The explorer believed for years that the complex crop circles are a form of message of unknown intelligence. With the gradual discovering changed his mind and in 1996 to question of another researcher Chris Fowler, what is the amount of falsified crop circles said this:

"The complex crop circles we can not claim to be fakes. They are authentic works of art created from bent crop stalks, made by humans. While what we generally understand by the term authentic crop circles, are the individual simple circles, whose history probably goes back thousands of years.

4th Crop circles in Poland

If we know the history and results of research worldwide phenomenon of crop circles, we can try to estimate how on the background looks like this sequence of events in Poland. We can also think about whether the Wylatowo phenomenon could arise due to circlemakers action, if we accept Pat Delgado finding, that all complex crop circles are the work of man.

4.1 The Polish history of crop circles

Polish press for the first time noticed this phenomenon in 1998 when described a crop circle, which originated in Polanka in Malopolska. The following year, a crop circle appeared in Pigżi near Torun. About this crop circle reported in detail "Nieznany Świat". They wrote that in the crop circles have been observed strange anomalies in the form of disturbances of phot-cameras, video-cameras and even watches.

These crop circles certainly may not be the first, which originated in Poland. The website of anomalous phenomena Research Centre (Centrum Badan Zjawisk Anomalnych) possible find articles describing testimony of Żabno resident (near Wylatowo). Testimony is inaccurate, because it was obtained in 2003 and relates to events thirty years old. Witness describes that in 1973, as a little girl, she saw above unidentified flying object the field, from which even were coming out some kind of beings. It is certainly hard after thirty years to evaluate the credibility of this story. The most serious is the fact that this event had to leave traces in the shape of circle flattened wheat diameter of about fifteen meters. According to witness testimonies about this event even wrote a newspaper "Trybuna Ludu". If it really existed in the archives such article, it would be Polish home evidence, that crop circles were created even before Doug Bower and Dave Chorley began to copy the original phenomenon and gradually this new form of work infected other fools or once creating witlings..

The phenomenon of crop circles began to grow in popularity in Poland after 2000. Interest was focused mainly on Wylatowo where crop circles appeared each year from 2000 to 2005. Despite efforts were never caught the perpetrator just in the act. This fact was considered the argument that the crop circles creators had to work quickly and unexpectedly, which precludes the possibility of mechanical bending grain with a plank.

4.2 Wylatowo - authentic phenomenon or circlemakers work?

In the year 2000 crop circles appeared in Wylatowo, most of which were no longer just simple circles, but very complex crop formations. If we recognize Pat Delgado's argument as true, we should assume that all complex crop circles in Wylatowo that there were vast majority, do not represent a genuine phenomenon, but are the work of man.

The above proposition is inconsistent with the view of many researchers of Wylatowo phenomenon. To try to verify its authenticity, is need become familiar with the arguments most often highlighted authenticity of Wylatowo crop circles.

4.2.1 The geometric complexity of crop circles and elegance of their creation eliminates the possibility of a man using planks

It was one of the first arguments in support of authenticity of crop circles, and can not be surprised by that. Similarly people reacted in England, when this phenomenon was at an early stage. Even not very precisely shaped cereals was something unusual, it was a new phenomenon, that could not be compared with anything other. Once were to the English observers of crop circles experimentally shown Wylatowo crop circle photographs in 2000. Their opinion was clear: They are poor imitations. The verdict resulted from the fact that they were accustomed to carefully assembled grain and better shapes of English crop circles. It is therefore necessary to keep in mind that such evaluations are always subjective.

The fact that shaping of cereals is not as difficult as it seems in theory, convinced Adam Piekut article "Rezultaty preparowania piktogramu zbożowego" (The results of making crop circle) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=322&dzial=Piktogramy, describing his own experiment, which consisted in creation of two circular shapes of crop circles. Despite the complete lack of experience, without helpers, with imperfect tools in the form of plain boards, he managed to create two crop circles with a diameter of nine and twelve meters in an hour and a quarter, and the resulting shapes were quite acceptable.

The fact that circlemakers are not only English specialty, was possible to convince in 2006. The Nautilus Foundation website published an interview with the band "Deskarze" that there is evidence of a most complex crop circle in the previous year from Mąkowarsko. It should be noted that although the geometric complexity of their crop circles aroused respect, were not too high quality and differed from the form characteristic of Wylatowo crop circles. "Deskarze" assured that they avoided Wylatowo, to not disturb investigations that take place there. But this may not apply to other groups of circlemakers.

Characteristic symptom, which is to be taken into account, is the fact that in the Wylatowo crop circles (for example in the "rosette" discovered July 7, 2003), the principal axis coincides with one of tracks for the tractor. This is an argument that more points to the creation of crop circles by circlemakers. People creating circles must be making that to have left no traces in the crop. At the beginning of making crop circle are therefore trying to to use the tractor tracks. This role perfectly describes (with reference to examples of three Wylatowo crop circles) article of Miłosław Olejnik „Analiza geometryczna możliwości wykonania piktogramów”, http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=254&dzial=Piktogramy  "Geometric analysis of crop circles feasibility".

By the example of the most beautiful Wylatowo crop circle shows that even in the crop circle, which is not oriented consistently with the tractor tracks, it is possible to find signs indicating its creation by circlemakers. Reconstruction of the other stages of geometrical construction therefore shows, that the center of the first circle is based on the exact middle of the tractor track, on which they are circlemakers at the beginning of their work strongly dependent. Hypothetical unknown force would hardly be bound by such restrictions. As suggested by the author himself, this argument can not be taken as evidence of circlemakers work. But it looks like a lot an aggravating circumstance in favor of this thesis.

4.2.2 The presence of many observers on the ground prevents to circlemakers create crop circles and stay unnoticed

If this argument is considered, it is necessary to bear in mind the mainly "Operation Blackbird" led by Colin Andrews. Through the use of more cameras than in Wylatowo and participation number of observers, circlemakers managed to create a crop circle in a guarded place. As confessed members of the English group "circlemakers", is an exceptional challenge for them to create a crop circle just at the location, that is closely watched by observers of this phenomenon.

If a similar situation occurred in Wylatowo is not known, it is possible to theorize only. In order to create a crop circle in a guarded place could circlemakers foist their informant, who was in the group supervising the place or derived from local residents. Circlemakers could find out what hours guardians activity reduced (generally highest after dark and slowly declining). Maybe for their actions used time around three and four o'clock in the morning. It should be also kept in mind that Wylatowo crop circles had quite a small area (compared to the crop circle from 2005) and time for their construction could be less than an hour. For comparison - English circlemakers under surveillance of cameras created a large and complicated crop circles within four to five hours.

4.2.3 Even if it was possible that crop circles were created by people, there is no reasonable target, which would compensate the effort and risk associated with such an action

The problem with such way of thinking is erroneous assumption, that all people have the same motivation. It should be kept in mind that human nature is very complex. People always only not follow the logic and do not limit their activities to what is practical and measurable effect. The question of circlemakers motivation is one of the most important for understanding the phenomenon of crop circles. Initial consideration is to change the main questions: What is reasonable aim of the manufacturers of crop circles, when spending their free time on Wylatowo fields? It is certainly difficult to explain through logic or effective action. This is not surprising, because the phenomenon of crop circles refers to completely different areas, as shown in the following paragraph.

4.2.4 In the pictures taken in the fields are seen orbs that are not visible to the naked eye, which confirms the presence of an unknown force

Pictures with orbs gained in popularity in 2003. Relatively quickly was submitted rational explanation. Similar effects often cause dust particles or water droplets in the vicinity of the lens, illuminated by photo-flash. Very well explained by Rafał Modrzejewski Articles "Fenomén kul w fotografii" (The phenomenon of spheres in the photo) http://www.nautilus.org.pl/?p=artykul&id=210 and "Błędy w fotografii – aparaty cyfrowe a kule" (Errors in photography - digital cameras and balls) http://www.nautilus.org.pl/?p=artykul&id=211. Some people believe that similarly it is possible to explain only part of the images, on others can be seen mysterious form of energy, orbs. If this is indeed the case, then there must be a clear rule to distinguish illuminated dust from orbs. So far, nobody made such a rule. In the article "Kule - facts, myths and niewiadome" (Ball - facts, myths and mystery) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=302&dzial=Piktogramy stressed that all the apparent orbs are always in the foreground. Never are even partially overlapped by other objects in the image (people, trees, buildings). This suggests that their source is close to the lens. This confirms a rational explanation by means of dust particles.

Even if the source of similar effects was not explained at all, they occur regardless of location and circumstances. Acquisition of similar images in crop circles therefore can not be an argument proving their authenticity.

4.2.5 Numerous observations of light balls (called BoL - Ball of lights) confirm that in the case of pictograms is involved unknown force, and excludes activities of pranksters (simpletons, note J.L.)

It is worth stressing that part of observation of light anomalies can be caused by bad interpretations of natural phenomena. Such observations are taking place mainly at night, in crop fields (no reference points), and moreover in a specific atmosphere in Wylatowo. In such a situation is not a problem to see what exactly wishes to see the observer.

One observer learned of it during a short visit to Wylatowo in 2006. While walking through field path in the vicinity of crop circle created in 2005, he noticed a car with the lights out. After a while from it got out a man and said that stopped in this unusual place, to look at the stars. His version was not entirely convincing. It could be assumed that this was the car that delivered circlemakers to the field. Observer to not arouse suspicion, returned toward the base, but after a while returned to those destinations. At one point he heard a distinct rustling of corn. He moved even a hundred meters and rustling was getting closer. He crouched on the field path in order not to be noticeable and concentrated on careful listening. Something definitely bent corn and according to the direction interpreted the shape of a circle (he heard rustling near, then further and close again). After two hours of waiting had begun to dawn on a little and tried not only hear but also see circlemakers. After concentrated watching recognized three people. For a while he returned to base and then returned to the place of the event along with a colleague who knew the location better. That already based of the description during the way to described place become suspicious that the observations were incorrect. Meanwhile brightened so that the site of alleged crop circle was clearly visible sprinkler that irrigated corn in circular motion, causing noise. Three people turned out to be some bushes..

It is very accurate illustration, how much can deceive the senses, sight, hearing and brain, that interprets the received information in a manner entirely under the influence of subjective conviction, beliefs and expectations. In the described case influenced erroneous observation meeting with the suspect car, and certainly the Internet discussions held at that time with circlemakers. Surely this could be influenced by some observations of other people, for example, prepared to observe the mysterious light, thanks to their expectations and specific atmosphere in Wylatowo.

Light anomalies observed in Wylatowo are nothing special. Similar observations are known from England, not only from crop circles observers, but also from circlemakers when creating crop circles, and from journalists collaborating with them. Remains an open issue whether such observations are generally associated with the creation of crop circles. Maybe they are only due to the fact that in these places, many people performed overnight observation. Unidentified balls of light are regularly observed and investigated in Hessdalen, without any connection of crop circles. It should also be noted that two well-known British researchers Colin Andrews and Pat Delgado assured, that similar strange phenomena appear in crop circles, which, in their testimonies, were quite surely created by circlemakers.

4.2.6 Nancy Talbott from BLT Research has confirmed authenticity of most crop circles raised in 2003 during visit in Wylatowo

Nancy Talbott began to investigate crop circles Wylatowo 18 July 2003. Carried out an assessment of symptoms using three methods based on comparing the stalks inside crop circle with a control test of stalks located next to crop circle. The results were as follows:

Crop circle of 26 June is authentic, so called snowman from the 7th July was created by humans. Most special report covers the crop circle discovered 6th July, which was, according to Nancy Talbott authentic, but only partially. An authentic was recognized so called rosette, the main element of the crop circle, and accompanying circle should be created by people. This would imply that the first action was a result of an unknown force, then first appeared authentic crop circle, but before was discovered by observers, on the spot could appear circlemakers, and to the original crop circle unit added neighboring circle. Such a concurrence of events seems to be very special..

Methods of analysis used by Nancy Talbott: All studies were performed on the spot and not in the laboratory. Were based on comparing the length of stalk nodes inside the crop circles, in comparison with the control stalks next to the crop circle, and searching for anomalies, such as stalks bent in node, swollen stalk nodes and the presence of the characteristic holes in them.

With regard to the examination of lengths of stalk nodes inside the the crop circle and their comparison with the control, it makes sense when two conditions are met:

The first condition certainly was not satisfied, especially with regard to crop circle found on the 26th June.

Nancy Talbott examined it three weeks after its occurrence, ie at a time when geotropism and phototropism processes took place for as long, that there was a bending and extension of stalk nodes naturally. Certainly was not met the second condition, because Nancy Talbott probably never made a statistical analysis (not in the report placed on the page BLT Research from Wylatowo), which would authorize for taking out of any conclusions..

Also finding of swollen nodes with characteristic holes does not prove the authenticity of crop circle, especially as it concerns only on individual spikes. With this issue dealt Adam Piekut in "Deformacje i uszkodzenia roślin - przyczyny" (Deformations and damage of plants - causes) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=336&dzial=Piktogramy.

Research carried out in Poland after so long since the creation of crop circle could not bring any serious results, contrary to previous results presented on the website of BLT Research. Proportional to the time that elapses from crop circle creation is in extension of stalk nodes growing influence of geotropism and phototropism. To understand this discontinuity in the activities of BLT Research, we consider that W. C. Levengood has already left this organization. Although his work met with criticism equally from crop circles researchers such as skeptics had the character of scientific work and could become the subject of substantive discussion. Unfortunately this can not be said of the research conducted in Poland.

4.2.7 Research Jerzy Szymański and Adam Piekut excluded the possibility of creating crop circles by people

This argument is somewhat exaggerated. The results of the work of both researchers do not justify in obtaining of such conclusions.

In 2004 dr. Szymański deployed in Wylatowo fields so called UFO sensors, which he constructed and the results of their research published in the article "Czujniki elektromagnetyczne w badaniu fenomenu piktogramów w Wylatowie w 2004 roku" (Electro-magnetic sensors in the research of the phenomenon of crop circles in Wylatovo in 2004) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?dzial=Badania&art=186. Here is what the author writes on the topic of records from sensors::

"The sensor 15 has experienced strong radio radiation (lit a miniature fluorescent lamp built in it). In many other sensors remained significant traces of exposure to ionizing radiation. Probably it was so-called soft X-rays. Traces on the film and photo paper also remained in several sensors considerably distant from the field with crop circles."

"Sensors used in 2004 did not allow to determine time when the captured phenomenon occurred."

Sensors of dr. Szymański however captured the presence of radiation not only on the field with crop circles, and the capture time is unknown. The field research has the disadvantage that it is difficult to identify all factors that influenced the outcome of the monitoring. Therefore is not confidence, that what sensors captured, was due to the process of creating crop circles by unknown force. Records of sensors located outside of the field with circles rather suggests that the causes are to be found in another phenomenon.

In 2005, Dr. Szymański decided to continuously record changes in the magnetic field, radio waves and X-ray ionizing radiation. The report "Wylatowo 2005 – coraz więcej pytań" (Wylatowo 2005 - still more questions) http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?dzial=Badania&art=334  author describes several recorded anomalies: removal of natural background radiation, magnetic and radio interference. At the same time, Dr. Szymański admits that:

"24 July morning originated before two hundred and fifty meters from the base of a huge crop circle with an area of 2650 m2, but records at that time showed no anomalies."

Therefore it is not possible with certainty note that anomalies captured by Dr. Szymański apparatus have something in common with the process of making crop circles by hypothetical unknown force.

Adam Piekut research focused on examining the length of spikes, plant height and size, volume, density and weight of seeds collected from corn collected inside crop circles, in 2003 and their comparison with the control. The results of these studies, however, are in relation to Wylatowo crop circles not clear. Although there are indeed statistically significant difference between samples from inside crop circle and control, are not large and do not show uniform charekter (eg, in one case was found to increase the width of the ear, in a contrast reduction, and the next spikes were unchanged). Also in case of this research can not be concluded which of many possible events may affect the results. Perhaps, the very fact of lodging cereal without depending on the method of its creation had any effect on the material of mature seed.

4.2.8 Formation of 30 crop circles in 2004 was established at a point monitored by cameras and just at the moment of their creation was captured unidentified powerful flash of light

This event has become the 10th July 2004. At 2:40 pm last patrol composed of members CBUFOiZA illuminated field, on which were later discovered crop circles. At 2:44 the camera recorded three roughly two-second flashes of light and at 3:00 am was already possible on the camera record observe the edge of a circle.

Although this event may confirm that it was a genuine natural phenomenon, the more, that according to British researchers, the most for them to be considered only the simplest crop circles in the shape of a simple circle, also in this case, however, no 100% proof and may be considered also circlemakers participation..

Although there is only a twenty minute gap between patrol CBUFOiZA who did not see anything suspicious, and the moment when the cameras showed the outline of one of the circles, does not mean that circlemakers had only twenty minutes to creation of thirty crop circles. If were previously on the base, and analyzed the the scope of cameras and the way of patrols, could begin marking of crop circles from the point closest to the base, and already could be at 3:00 in the stage of creating a more distant circles lying outside the scope of cameras. The whole situation could resemble the previously described operation Blackbird in England, where circlemakers managed produce crop circles in the monitored area. And as for the flashes of light, may also have natural causes. For example, could be a pre-arranged signal, marked the beginning of the action of shaping cereal by the person monitoring the movement of patrol in the base.

Similar reasoning is of course only speculative. Its aim is to realize that if missing clear evidence about the origin of crop circles in 2004, it is possible to generate different scenarios, who and how created them.

Summary: So far, failed to trace the origin of crop circles in Wylatowo. The most common arguments for their authenticity are either wrong, (as the research of Nancy Talbott), or are based on the lack of strong arguments, that can be questioned. It is important to recognize that there are no prima facie evidence against, and it seems that they could be supplied only by circlemakers, as in the case of crop circles in Makowarsko.

If they will be confirmed thesis of an English researcher Pat Delgado, that all complex crop circles are the work of human, also for Wylatowo, yet due to lack of evidence remains an open question.

5th Philosophy of circlemakers, a new look on crop circles

For years, the participation of circlemakers on the phenomenon of crop circles was underestimated. In addition to lack of faith in the ability of of crop stalks with exact shaping boards has also been misunderstood motivation, forcing people to such activity. Knowledge of circlemakers philosophy is crucial for understanding the crop circles phenomenon, about what, among other things, wrote the researcher Colin Andrews, and allows to understand the mystery in somewhat different way than previously expected.

5.1 The motivation of circlemakers

When the answer of the question: "Are there people, who are able to produce crop circles?" has become clear to all, there was appearing another: "Why should be thay doing that?". Because they failed to find a satisfactory explanation part of observers of this phenomenon suspected that circlemakers are paid by secret government agency that tries to hide from people the truth about the extraterrestrial civilization, that tries to communicate with the help of crop circles. According to the authors of this theory was the best form of discreditation authentic crop circles creation of false imitations and focus of attention just on them or their creators. The natural tendency of humans to the generalization should provide the rest, cause the phenomenon has been recognized by public opinion as the result of activities of groups of eccentric deviants. It is this kind of thinking led to the fact that some people believe the version introduced in 1991 "Today," which proclaimed that the two elderly senile dements, Doug and Dave in the past few years with unimaginable efforts and complete confidentiality created all crop circles in England emerged.

Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, in fact, did not create all the circles that have arisen in the years of their activities. Proclamation of this phenomenon by the media caused that followers of the famous couple started working. It is also not excluded that part of crop circles was a result of the original phenomenon. Still, however, this pair of pranksters was responsible for much of circles, that attracted much interest in public opinion in the seventies and eighties of last century, what illustrated by the evidence..

Doug Bower to a question on the motivation for their activities often replied that he did it only for fun. Such a response seems to be unconvincing, considering the number of years spent by him in this occasional activity. A lot of curious people, however, they found that the cause is to be found also in Bower interest in the UFO phenomenon and the main event in Tully, Australia. These were circular track in the reeds, which appeared in 1969 and were given the designation "UFO nest" due to the the shape of lodging and observations of UFOs above the place. One desire of the first circlemaker was reviving discussion on the topic of alien civilizations in the universe and the possibility of open contact with them. Rob Irving, who spoke privately many times with Bower, remembers one more, perhaps the most important cause of eccentric hobby. It is associated with some sad events in Doug's life and will be published only after his death.

On pages of an internet forum once answered one of the anonymous circlemakers that creates crop circles for his prematurely deceased daughter. Until she was still alive, gave her the gift of his drawings. We can talk more about the message from earth to heaven, that is completely upside down than it is interpreted by people who visit the crop circles.

The motivation for their activities members also described of the most famous group in an interview maintained by circlemakers Mark Pilkington. John Lundberg once meant that crop circles can not be the work of man. Convinced him only competition for the production of crop circles, organized in 1992 at the initiative of Rupert Sheldrakea. Then he thought that crop circles may be a new form of art that allows him to get out of the gallery walls. Rob Irving at beginning of his activities wanted to prove himself above all that the creation of complex and large-scale crop circles in a short time is possible, although of this phenomenon researchers proclaim the opposite. Later, relying mainly on the creative instinct, that has mastered to the extent that the formation of crop circles became his life's mission.

Some circlemakers came from the environment of supporters of the natural crop circles formation, which are not formed by people, such as Peter Sorensen. Another, described in the book "The Field Guide", believed that some crop circles are created by an unknown force, and their activities in the fields considered as a form of dialogue with the mysterious creator.

5.2 The philosophy of circlemakers

Circlemakers are often seen as witlings, who make crop circles just to laugh at the shelter to naivety of people who see them in action of speech of unknown forces. This assessment is only partly true. Such motivation may perhaps suffice to explain one or more crop circles, but not to anyone that has dedicated much of his time and devoted himself to this activity regularly.

Circlemakers aware of the ties that bind them to those interested in crop circles. John Lundberg from "circlemakers" remembers in many interviews that their art has meaning only when it finds a committed customer. Because most people perceive the crop circles as a form of message from extraterrestrial intelligence circlemakers adhere to the principle does not give the specific authorship crop circles. The fact that this is the right principle to convince Lundberg crop circles created for commercial purposes. Secret free veil, when we know that writers are artists, we attract so many people that do not generate a unique atmosphere characteristic of anonymously created crop circles..

According to Lundberg are crop circles made in complete secrecy kind of art that will not end the moment of completion of work. Creative artists, without having about their role no idea, they are also visitors who think about their importance and concern the question about their identity, the meaning of life or nature of the universe. According to Lundberg consideration crop circles act as temporary power points where people can ask philosophical questions, to which there is no time in everyday life and can achieve a specific state of mind. Rob Irving thinks that the most important element to create a unique aura is mystery multiplied by ambiguity.

Need to create mystery is the most common feature of all circlemakers. That is why they were so much irritated by people who appointed themselves to positions of experts on crop circles and tried to persuade others that they own the key to unlocking the mystery. The first two circlemakers were very nervous thanks to Dr. Meaden who the creation of crop circles considered to be a meteorological phenomenon. Just with intent to disprove his theory, Doug and Dave decided to move from making ordinary crop circles to complex geometry. Another obstacle was the dr. Levengood, who conducted research on crop circles in a scientific manner and took the whole phenomenon as complex calculations and formulas that were incomprehensible to the average interested persons. Although the results of Levengood's research showed that the crop circle phenomenon is a kind of unknown, perhaps atmospheric plasma vortex, scientific approach to the problem get rid the phenomenon of magic and mystery. Possible also recognize that circlemakers were provoked by the fact that their anonymous work brings glory to people who are making in their research manifest errors. Maybe this was the reason for planning the intrigues with iron powder as described above, that has undermined confidence in Levengood's research methods. Iron powder identified as meteoritic dust, which served to create a theory of the atmospheric plasma-generating circles.

Circlemakers had between supporters of natural creation of crop circles and some farmers always a bad reputation. In a discussion organized by the BBC Lundberg insisted, that their relationship with the owners of the fields are were very good, some farmers get high revenues from entrance fees to the field with crop circles, but it is not always the case, because it happened that the owners of the fields destroyed the crop circles, to prevent the approach of unwanted guests on their private property.

Researchers of crop circles also raise objections, that circlemakers activities make it difficult for people who study the original crop circle phenomenon. Members of the group "circlemakers" admit that continue the work started by Doug and Dave, for which it was first inspiration circles in Tully and Warminster. They emphasize, however, that this phenomenon develop in their own way. Their role ends at the moment of completion the crop circle. Decision about the origin of crop circles and interpretation of their significance, that is already the domain of researchers. Therefore consider marking forger as incorrect. They think that such a name more worthy of those who have a subjective assessment on the authenticity of a particular crop circles or the meaning of hidden message in it considered as irrefutable fact, and thus misguide other people.

5.3 Psychological and sociological aspects

Rob Irving is trying to prove that most of the phenomena takes place unknown on the boundary of according to an identical scenario. First, we are dealing with a single anomalous event, that seems to be beyond scientific knowledge and gradually matures into legend. If does not have a natural continuation, people are trying to revive the legend, imitating a primary phenomenon. Thus, the legend becomes fact. When this issue was discussed with Irving, was given to him an example of Witold Gombrowicz considerations in the short story "Cosmos", which can be applied to process complex relations among people engaged in the crop circle phenomenon.

Hero of "Cosmos" observes in his neighborhood minor signals, the arrow on the ceiling, wood chips on a thread, and decides whether they are random and do not need to deal with them, or whether is someone trying to use them to deliver him some information. To intellectual charades based on uncovering relationships between signals and the author's intention involves his colleague. Together with then trying to piece together random elements of reality. The main character is so focused on bringing his investigation into a meaningful conclusion that the observer changes to an active participant of events and acts as an ally of the hypothetical offender..

"Kosmos" is a form of detective stories, but its real goal is to analyze the act of cognition. Gombrowicz analyzes how one tries to interconnect the elements of reality in a meaningful whole. The need to organize facts, finding targets and logic makes people very frequently cease to be an observer and participate in the process of control reality.

If we look at the phenomenon of crop circles look Gombrowicz considerations, we can easily understand why the phenomenon of simple circles that appeared sporadically in different places, and suddenly passed transformation since the mid-seventies of the 20th century became increasingly complex forms of crop circles, interpreted as a message of extraterrestrial civilizations. A turning point was incident in Tully. The phenomenon of crop circles, though mentioned earlier, however, has never been the subject of wide interest or public debate. Hard to say why, whether due to infrequent occurrence or the fact that it was rationally explained as a result of atmospheric processes. Only testimony of a witness from Tully caused the phenomenon crop circles merged with very popular UFO phenomenon. Whether the witness was telling the truth as they think ufologists, or lied and the tracks in the reeds were caused by air turbulences, as the skeptics think, the further development of the phenomenon would have no meaning. The important thing was that they found a man who decided to revive the legend of Tully on English fields.

The first crop circle researchers were therefore dealing with a similar task as the hero of Gombrowicz's "Cosmos". From the various elements actually tried to build a continuous theory of how crop circles are formed and what they mean. Even if we agreed that a circular track in the reeds in Tully was actually a trace of the UFO landing, but the phenomenon of crop circles developed independently from the primary phenomenon. Soon a pair of the first circlemakers ceased to be the only creative participants in this phenomenon. The characteristic role was played by Peter Sorensen, who changed from an observer of events and of crop circles researcher anything resembling a hero Gombrowicz's "Kosmos" in an active participant, circlemaker.

5.4 A new look at the phenomenon of crop circles

If indeed all complex crop circles are solely the work of circlemakers, as many suggest, we could all time spent on their research considered lost. In this way responded some researchers, who, after realizing that crop circles are the work of deviant individuals, have completely lost interest in this phenomenon. Possible consider, whether any unusual events, and testimonies of people associated with crop circles should be considered unreliable because they were based on the mistaken assumption that the crop circles were created by extraterrestrial civilizations. It may not be so. Perhaps the existence of this mistaken assumption was a necessary condition for expressing ideas about the unknown that can not be scientifically examined and what is beyond logic.

In Coelho story "Veronika decides to die" young girl who loses flavor to live, only under the influence of medical diagnosis of the fatal disease, and close inevitable death, learn to enjoy the simplest things and appreciate every moment of life. When she finds a sense of her own existence, learns that the medical diagnosis was the only method for healing her soul. Similarly, it may be the case of crop circles. One of the articles Rob Irving is called "Art and deceit." Convinced that art is sometimes based on the illusion and causing of complete surprise of recipients using tricks and then it was outside leaning against the logic of analysis..

Thus undoubtedly influenced crop circles. The existence of large crop circles, whose complex geometry could be seen only from a great height, seemed to be something "not from this world", too irrational, than that it could be _ manmade. In "The Field Guide", Irving added that people's reactions to their work, that observed, and an unusual experience inside the crop circles forced to ask questions if there is something between reality common to all, which is governed by uniform rules, and thus what is happening only in the mind and imagination. Maybe there is some indirect level that everyone can perceive in his own way where there are no binding rules of logic.

In the vicinity of the occurrence of crop circles are actually becoming things strange and illogical. The most common example of the anomalies are short flashes of light or luminous spheres. Such observations do not provide only supporters of crop circles, but also circlemakers themselves and accompanying journalists. Description of such events with the participation of circlemakers can be found at www.circlemakers.org. Most interesting, however, are testimonies published by Rob Irving on an Internet forum. One of the testimony concerning a meeting with unidentified ball of light that give the impression that moves and stops as if responding to the Irwing's request. He admits, however, that it may be subjective experience caused by natural tendency to take the reality in the way that is influenced by man.

Special events in the vicinity of the occurrence of crop circles include not only light anomalies. They are also strange sounds, which can not be attributed to natural resources, and the special feelings of the people that words can hardly express, such as feeling the presence of someone or something that remains invisible, or overall feeling of inner peace or increased sensitivity. Such testimonies, of course, can not rely on evidence, possible only either believe or disbelieve to them, or be a witness of unusual states of consciousness by himself.

Our civilization is developed mainly through scientific methods of knowledge. Science has allowed people to reveal the laws of matter and their use for their own benefit. At the same time, however, pushed to the sidelines other methods of knowledge based on intuition and direct experience, developed through prayers, meditations, ceremonies and in close contact with nature. Today we live with the conviction that the scientific equipment is more credible instrument of observation than our senses. We are subjected to a uniform system of education and persuasion, that knowledge about the universe can be obtained only through scientific methods. The phenomenon of crop circles allowed to look at reality not through the prism of social science, but the individual experience. People who visit crop circles feel that at this point it becomes possible, what is generally regarded as impossible. Perhaps the analysis of scientific knowledge about the universe is not the only method available. In addition, thanks to science that we know more about the mechanisms governing such matter, people still are not too close to answer the question "Who am I?", "Where I'm heading?", "What is my role in the universe?", "Has our life a higher meaning? ". Maybe analytical consciousness can not find answers to these questions.

Crop circles can be compared to Mandalas, that adherents of Hinduism and Buddhism served as a tool for meditation. Buddhist doctrine proclaims that true understanding does not come through the analysis of parts of reality, but by achieving a state of internal harmony and unity with nature. Our ancestors built the stone circles that were regarded as places of power. Crop circles appear to be their modern equivalent. Perhaps the presence of hypothetical radiation of circular formations, contact with nature, an element of mystery and a feeling that at this point everything is possible, creating a suitable environment to enhance the perception in a way that has nothing to do with logic.

5.5 Question of the crop circle phenomenon future

The phenomenon of crop circles seems to be, in the process of decay. The main reason is the use of crop circles as a form of advertising. Circlemakers received in recent years, many paid orders and thereby convince unbelievers that people are able to create the most complex crop circles in a remarkably short time. It has become clear that on the fields of England practiced this art before, but anonymously.

Many people have lost interest in this phenomenon, after realizing that complex crop circles about nothing to do with the messages of extraterrestrial civilizations. But there are also those who think that crossing the border of unknown is possible thanks to a phenomenon involving only men.

The time will tell if crop circles phenomenon persists without the knowledge that behind it are supernatural forces. And maybe people will open the gate of intuitive knowledge beyond logic and experience similar to those obtained Bill Witherspoon when creating Sri Yantra mandala, which is described in the article "The symbolism of crop circles" http://wylatowo.pl/news.php?art=346&dzial=Pictograms

 

If interested, contact cropcirclesonline@gmail.com

 

(1) announcement, that very low IQ is "artistic interests", is distorting the truth in really a huge level, note J. L. 

(2) idiots, note J. L. 

(3) may be fake - note J. L. 

(4) one or two common characteristics is possible find, note J. L. 

  1. First, exhibitionism of some observers, which is more psychological or mental disorder, that greatly reduces the credibility of any similar testimony, and it would be better not to include them at all.
  2. Very much testimonies were quite clearly made by people, who exactly at the time of observation reached a state of very severe fatally intoxication by poisonous chemicals (very similar, or even much worse of drug abuse), without in the least aware of it. They were very close in a state of death or unconsciousness, without in the least aware of it, and their testimony should be viewed as a testimony of individuals, who were at the time of described situations observing in a state of severe intoxication, at least equal to the man immediately after dosing of drugs, or state that follows during so-called "roll out" of the drug dose, or vice versa a state that is accompanied by withdrawal symptoms.
  3. In any case, they are individuals who are at least under the influence of adrenalin from the observation of something, with what very few people ever met in their whole life, and what will probably never be repeated. Similar facts may very significantly negatively contribute to the objectivity of observation.

(5) may be created gradually over time, first at the center and later more and more to the edge, and thus indirectly arrange the interpretation of L-B Law; the diameter of the circle may rise up several days 

      

 

 

 

This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by

 

Jan Ledecky

 

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