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Archaeology, Aerial Archaeology.
Archaeology and Aerial Archaeology are bringing together two extreme branches of human cognition. Better say, one type of cognition, realised by two extreme different types of recognition. Archaeology is largely engaged in objects, situated underground, and aerial archeology helps to reveal it by the views from above. Cropmarks, snowmarks, soilmarks and shadow marks.
Whereas Archaeology examines the history of mankind "from below", through excavation, Aerial Archaeology helps to it through a look from above. On the aerial photographs can be detected at different times different visual anomalies, and evaluate, where they are located a variety of underground archaeological artifacts.
Also Different humidity Marks (will be explained in brief a little later, possible find through search engines)
Specific chapter form Different Soil Resistance Marks: independently yet classified as not detectable by aerial reconnaissance, they are tested and measured during the terrestrial, ground reconnaissance, by the measurement of soil resistivity values. By the aerial reconnaissance should be verifiable only those accompanied by classic cropmarks (or other type of -marks). However, conducting of the lightning discharge currents may even visualize a resistive symptoms that would be otherwise not at all or almost not at all reflected, even those that are not detectable by terrestrial reconnaissance. Damage to roots, or just only by changing properties of the soil may be visualized very substantially - by changing of the color (decreasing of growth and ripening), and later they may be bent to the ground (in case of more extensive damage), or even die (in the case of much more extensive damage) (pic). Electrical energy preferably concentrated in the places of lower resistance, may slightly damage plants and cause stagnation of growth, or even kill them. Or just temporarily change the properties of the soil by electrolysis, (change in pH, concentration of soluble substances) and plants temporarily behave similarly to transplanting. Therefore may be visualized even such resistance marks, that would be very difficult findable by terrestrial reconnaissance (exploratory drilling to a depth meter, two or more), that are in the years with no energy delivered by the lightning discharge not displayed at all, they are too deep from the vegetation and in their own neither positively or negatively affect its root system, or modify the properties of the soil.
There is possible observe very interesting interconnections between aerial archeology and crop circles. Not only, that many crop circles found, are immediatelly interconnected with archeological remains underground, and some of their parts appear as classic cropmarks (in aerial archeology commonly used term, see).
Very interesting relationship
The second, maybe much more interesting relationship, is the genius loci - the locations of the most frequent occurence of crop circles and the localities, where the most important, the first promoter and discoverer of aerial archeology - O. S. G. Crawford firstly in his youth observed barrows, burial mounds, vaults, crypts, tombs, henges, earthworks, ditches, hedges, scattered across the landscape and sketched them. In Hampshire and surroundings. He noticed a very significant influence of identified and anticipated underground structures, to the nature and variations of vegetation growth, which is located above them. Mostly cereals, but also any other kinds of cultivated crops. Later continued in aerial archeology investigations and observations over the whole Wessex - (Berkshire, Dorsetshire, Hampshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire). At locations, that provide a huge amount of of objects and remains suitable for such research and investigations, and later were "fulfilled" by crop circles.
Local conditions (genius loci), in a described way quite simply and understandably, urged him to the implementation of similar studies. By their mere existence and presence in named places, so significantly contributed to the discovery and inventions in the field of aviation archeology. Thanks to that, encouraged one keen observer in his observations and researches. Is everything only a coincidence?
Nowhere else in the world probably on the inhabited and cultivated areas in such a high concentrations occur, and may be very substantially participating in the formation of at least some crop circles or their parts. The lightning discharge may in many cases probably act like a great intensifier, highlighter of cropmarks, which due to it may be found in a number of cases even on such a places, where in the structure of cereal crops for many years before or after, was not observable anything at all. Therefore they may exhibit effects such as lowered electrical resistance of such structures. But they are at such a depth underground, that without the passage of electricity from the lightning discharges through the vegetation structure and their roots show other years absolutely nothing. The lightnings electricity - cropmarks intensifier, highlighter, and developer of such cropmarks (deep structures), unidentifiable and unobtainable by any other method. Already Crawford himself observed, that in some years, on the fields appear vegetation symptoms that were not observable many years before nor afterwards, and within their means very correctly concluded, that the most likely it mostly depends on the influence of weather.
Lightning Induced Cropmarks
(Lowered Resistance Effect, accelerated and displayed by electricity) Type 1: Lightning Induced Cropmarks of pure electricity, and agriculture cultivation character. (much more frequent, all possibilities will be explained later)(s)
Type 2: Lightning Induced Cropmarks of underground structure character. (s)
(possible say, that every lodged (damaged, weakened) crop (more million sq. km yearly), also Crop Circles and their accompanying shapes (several thousands sq. km yearly) are Lightning Induced Cropmarks, mostly Type 1, less Type 2
Als possible term as Surface LIC and Underground LIC
A discharge of lightning, and electricity supplied by that, thus may temporarily (for the remaining period of the growing season) cause the appearance of cropmarks, which in other years may not appear not at all. The resulting effect is to some extent highly dependent on that, how intensive was the "power supply", through which ways it was conducted underground and on the surface and from where it was conducted into the field. Electricity may be into the earth's surface and underground delivered in several ways:
1) A direct hit into the field by one or more arms of one lightning discharge, or its subsequent Return Strokes (everything happens in time, usually not exceeding one second). There is relatively unique opportunity that is the same field during a single storm hit by several lightnings at intervals of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, then the situation is very similar to as if the field hit by single, multiply branched lightning. Electricity from lightning in this case, of course, goes underground but it can happen in many different ways. Part of the energy may be before complete diverting underground distributed over the surface, preferably on tramlines and their immediate surroundings. A slightly higher conductivity may also exhibit sites that have been passed with a sowing machine twice ("teeth" on the edge of the field). While the tractor tracks and places in their immediate vicinity (up to tens of centimeters) (photo) have certainly several times higher conductivity against the rest of the field, described places created by sowing machine may exhibit conductivity increased by tens of percent. During the underground distribution may the energy pass and be influenced by a variety of more conductive structures and all these conductive structures both just under the surface or much more underground may show various degrees of damage to crops. In some places the soil surface may spread the excess discharge energy also by channels relatively independent of the resistance, random paths which temporarily creates by ionization of materials present on site or by processes that resemble dielectric breakdown. (photo, photo, photo)
2) Hit into the natural or artificial lightning conductor, located in the field (mostly pole power lines, tree, shrub), from which electricity is evenly released into the underground where it can pass and be influenced by more conductive structures, as in case 1. However, the damage to crops may not be in this case so much influenced by surface structures with low resistance arising from the cultivation. Of course, some of the energy may from affected lightning conductor disseminate over the surface of the field, preferably in the structures named in point 1, but not to the same extent as in direct intervention. (, photo, photo)
Note: the exact hitting of any lightning conductor in the field by one or more branches lightning will be among phenomena rather rare, far more likely to occur to parallel intervention and lightning conductor surface field, so actually a combination of points 1 and 2. Any unique lightning rod in the field, although may attract lightning thereof can be when it is closer to the Stepped Leader Positive Streamer to pick up, sometimes also called Connecting Leader, Upward-Moving Leader (see) and when they contact interconnection happens - Attachment Process, after which just follows the Return Stroke which transmits about 99% of the whole discharge energy, and that is indeed possible see (and hear later, the later the better). Because between the moment when emerge Positive Streamer, after that occurs interconnection and until after that happens Return Stroke, and because in the immediate vicinity of that point happen very dynamic actions (often strong wind)may not not at all hit Return Stroke back to where arised Connecting Leader. Most often when approaching the Stepped Leader rises in immediate vicinity several of P.S., but interconnected is only one, or by no means all. Occurs because a phenomenon called Unfinished Moving Upward-Leader, but surely that can kill some of the insects. (pic) (voltage present on the site is more than a million volts / meter)
Hit of the lightning discharge into the structure, which is not directly in the crop field, but immediately adjacent (tree, shrub, path, limit). From there is electricity conducted both on the surface, partly underground. In fact, can occur happens, which were described in paragraphs 1 and 2, only with considerably less intensity. Very often, in this case is the most affected the tramline, according to leading edge of the field, and its immediate vicinity. Very often is damaged crop only there and nowhere else. The tramline at the edge of the field is clearly the most rutted and therefore has the lowest resistance.
(4) In rare cases, the field or its immediate surroundings is not affected at all, but there is supplied into that a tiny fraction of the energy that struck an adjacent field, and to that not affected neighboring is delivered by an underground metal pipe. (photo)
to a different place (biology, physiology, agriculture): Transplantation effect has for some time a negative effect to plants even in such a case, when they are completely undamaged plants moved to completely objective better conditions. Hydroponically grown plants (so there is no loss of root system) is abruptly increased nutrient concentrations of a few tens of percent, say at 160% or 200% of original value, when they were previously maintained for some time more like in the "moderate malnutrition", a slight lack of nutrients, say, only half of the optimal value. Although the increase in nutrient concentrations at constant pH of compliance should respond to the immediate recovery of growth and vitality, for a time (usually several days) slightly wither. Will reflect namely a change of osmotic pressure between the nutrient solution and the intercellular and extracellular fluids in the plant, which can cause distortion and damage to some cells. For a while, even the water flows out from the plant, quite the opposite direction than usual, until is ballanced osmotic pressure inside cells with a solution of nutrients.
That phrase move at the appropriate place: Higher current density at sites with lower resistance can lead to very noticeable damage to the root system of plants in the immediate vicinity, that can be adequately reflected in the vitality of aboveground plant parts. For example, corn root system penetrates to a depth of 1.5 - 3 m, sometimes over 4 meters (Monograph of corn, Ing. Jaroslav Hruška et al, SZN, UVTIZ 1962).
In places where the lightning energy passes through pipelines underground (no-frost depth, ie, about a meter or deeper underground), is often the all-out death of the crop plants very well over this pipeline. The surrounding vegetation does not exhibit any signs of electricity flowing through.
In the history of aviation archeology is described a number of cases where the landscapes in the growth of vegetation for many years did not show any signs of cropmarks, even other (snow, shadow, soil, humidity). Suddenly some cropmarks surprisingly appeared on that place within one year. Most often was this circumstance attributed to the effects of drought (see). However, it is possible that some of these cases were enabled by the intervention of a nearby lightning and visualising of resistance symptoms that sometimes do not show anything at all, and in other years without electricity intervention were completely invisible.
Why are Crop Circles so often appearring in the vicinity of prehistoric settlements?
1) As one of the possible (perhaps less significant, possible will continue some better) to offer an explanation of the reasoning that the prehistoric inhabitants needed the water to survive. Since the river did undoubtedly expelled them out due to annual floods, so that probably decided it was best to settle near a spring, which could be on the place even more. Frequent presence of springs in place of geological fault. Permanent presence of moisture in the soil increases its electrical conductivity by several orders of magnitude, then surely is such a place much better attracting lightning, and this situation on the ground may persist to present days. Effects of lightning while to our beloved autochthons somewhat corralled into a distance, but not too far. Not to mention that the presence of spring water certainly has become an attraction for all sorts of animals, and place them to serve as an abundant huntingground. It is also possible that occasionally after the storm have found near the spring some pieces of partially cooked animals. Due to the fact that in ancient times have been good manners and social customs far at such a high levellike today, it is also possible that occasionally consumed some member of their own tribe, who did not escape enough time before the storm back into the cave. Bon appetit!
2) Further, the very physics-based reasoning concerns the fact that the ancient inhabitants of different settlements worked with metals - Iron Age, bronze, brass, lead, steel (Fe, Cu, Sn, Pb). They had smelting works after them and stayed around to uncountable number tons of slag, which is now stretched under arable land. Even some of those metal objects remained. Slag contains significant (sometime tens of) percent pure, reduced, but the raw, not obttained, unutizable metal (in past times, deficiencies of contemporary processes), which reduce their resistance even more than 6 orders of magnitude, thus helping very steep conduction of the discharge current into deep underground. Discharge then above ground even below it acts as a conductor, which passes through the "pad" (ground surface) during the school physical attempt at creating a pattern of electromagnetic field lines in metal shavings. A similar pattern was actually created in the crop, but is still quite invisible, only "exposed", "recorded", and will appear until after many days (EPP, Chronology).
(this can already be placed into physics, mechanics, and only link here, or here a lot to simplify and leave links)
In the laboratory school of about 10 amperes current created in the shavings circle with a diameter of several centimeters (), currents of 40 or 400 thousand amperes (even more) recorded in the crop circle with a diameter of about tens of meters ( ). Occurs induction into the surrounding wires (plants), the energy is brought into them, and stalks at the moment of the discharge therefore act as a magnetic filings, or the compass needle ( ). However, all that described happens into them only "record", "expose" as directionally oriented microscopic tissue damage, which increase due to growing within days. Also, due to inertia of biological processes will a relatively serious damage to plants on their mechanical properties begin show until after many days, and damage due to directional orientation gradually start bending in one direction (CW, CCW). Over time, some of them may be inclined blades so large that it exceeds the limit angle, which is continuously weakening tissue at the bottom of the stalks still able to maintain. The effect of the weight of the stalk with each degree of deviation increases the effect of the lever, and at some point, the stalk may relatively quickly bend to the ground. Suppose that while the first 45 degrees of stalk bending takes a a few days, an additional 10 degrees several hours and the rest just minutes.
All times are approximate, of course, but something very similar on the described lightning location really takes place. Specific times of the described processes are very dependent on the intensity of intervention. In addition, however, must be noted that the very first stage, at first almost imperceptible bending stalks to the ground, usually occurs until after many days. The first few days immediately after the discharge stalks look as if nothing happened, and would not be on them observable, or measurable almost any signs of mechanical weakness. It is a consequence of a very slow process of degradation of plant tissues, damaged by electricity, and the huge inertia of biological and physiological processes in plants. In the last stage could play a role the Domino effect, and potential observers will see completely nothing, because everything slides down to the ground like a house of cards, just when no one is looking. Most frequently still in the dark, early in the morning, when the stalks grows heavy with dew, which like known Butterfly starts the rest of the whole process. Any observer has the morning after a sleepless night head elevated as the bale, and vision blurred with alcohol, so when long time ago does not sleep, however does not see anything well.
Also little elsewhere
Enormous inertia of plant processes is possible to demonstrate in a very simple experiment. Results from it, that also plant tissues, that have been by the electricity almost immediately killed, they can many days after the passage of a lethal dose of electricity seem almost indistinguishable from the tissues completely undamaged. Even if the described part of the plant received such an amount electric energy, which greatly exceeds the amount required for its complete death. It is thus possible to easily demonstrate the possibility of damaging some parts of the plant by electricity, which are not only completely necessary for its continued survival and perform photosynthesis. In the case of Poaceae for example some parts of the stalks. It is thus possible to demonstrate the possibility of damage to some parts of the plant by electricity, after which the plant may survive and continue in growing and maturation, even if in a slightly distorted form. If it is a Poaceae for example some parts of the stalks, but also parts of leafs or spike. Even after a total death a small part of the plant in their entire cross-section, need not wither away also the rest of the plant above it, because the dead tissue is able to continue successfully perform the functions of vascular tissues and manage plant metabolism between roots and the rest of the plant. Parts killed by the electricity are not functioning for the rest of the plants plant as a source of infection and the necrosis the tissues does not proceed farther from them nor propagate far away. (, photo, photo)
By the determination of lethal doses of electricity for some plants or their parts, in terms of weight and dry weight, or influence of action current waveforms and voltages used will be dealing in relatively detailed manner the electro-phytopathology section. (EPP) Just as the behavior of plants or their parts after affecting of various amounts of electricity - from a tiny fraction of lethal doses to highly over lethal (ten times, hundred times).
3) The shape and architecture of roundel may be direct basis for some crop circles, up to triple ditch ()
In addition to any architectural shapes present on the site of previous building settlements may participate on the shapes of lodged (damaged, weakened) crop structures once present on-site wells, threshing floor, garden ponds, fountains, garden architecture
explosion craters from bombs during the war - very accurate circles (better than a threshing floor)
(also does not belong solely to archeology, more like physics, electrical engineering)
4) Electricity from lightning may be a phenomenon that amplifies and visualise archaeological features mostly in vegetation in the form of cropmarks (at least as a color change, different stage of growth and ripening, weakening of leafs and stalks and subsequent bending stalks), which would without its influence, "help", otherwise appear not at all or only in the form of almost unnoticeable effect. All flattened (damaged, weakened) crop may be considered as a form of cropmarks. Not far at all but a some of them may be a signs of archeological. Some other geological, industrial. In many cases, very likely only result of currents, which took place on the earth's surface. In a relatively large number of cases it is probably only the result of currents, which were carried over the earth's surface, whether due to reduced resistance caused by cultivation, or completely chaotic, due to an excessive surplus of electric charge from lightning in the surveyed site.
Listed phenomena that cause a different color, growing or ripening stage, or crop stalks inclination, even complete bending to the ground by symptoms arising during cultivation, are sometime caused by higher electrical conductivity in tramlines or overlaps of sowing machines. Sometime are created almost only by chaotic movement of excess electrical charge, mostly at the closest distance from the lightning hit point. All of them is possible to use as a relatively reliable and accurate signs and proofs of the fact, that crop field was affected by lightning, and is possible try searching there, also on adjacent fields, other similar symptoms. Whether color, growth, or lodging (damaging, weakening), or fading or weakening, which could indicate the presence of objects or structures underground, manifested by the changes in electrical resistance of soil in their immediate proximity.
One of cereals, which are among others one of the most sensitive to the effects of the passage of electric current, is the barley, King of Colors and Contrasts. Mechanical resistance of its stalks is compared with wheat less than one third. It is much more sensitive to any disturbance in cultivation, adverse weather conditions and the effects of electric current. On the other hand, for any observer, offers as a kind of "reward" such an interesting variety of shades and color contrasts, which can not provide almost any other crop. With the exception of strongly colored flowering plants, such as canola, mustard, poppy. But in their cases is " period" the high-contrast only a relatively short, just over 14 days (, link). Colour contrast is of course much higher, but very limited duration.
After exposure to the electricity from the lightning discharges is in the case of barley possible observe the premature changes in the angle of rotation ears to the ground (will be explained more in parts EPP, biology, agriculture, chronology, lodging (damaging, weakening)), weakening of stalks and leafs, leaning stalks, creation of stalks bundles. Before full heading is possible to observe weakening of the uppermost leaf. All these are phenomena that occur as a result of weakening stalks and whole plants due to the activity of electric current. All of them are observable on air photographs, also by terrestrial observations. Barley crop provides a very distinctive color and shade contrasts, both during full heading, also during the ear rotation and stalks inclination to the ground. ( )
In most cases there is considerable due to the effects of electricity some time after initial observations described symptoms to such weakening of stalks that finally bend to the ground. Some of described phenomena may be quite strikingly resembling effects that occur in the event of adverse hydrometeorological conditions such as drought. Similarly may also occur, especially for example to weakeing of sheets and fading. However, the consequences are almost completely reversible, and after reduction of drought plants usually completely recover. Only in the case of really extreme droughts, some irreversible changes occur, that plants may not survive. On the other side, during the action of truly extreme drought stalks of crop almost never bend to the ground. They are not mechanically weakened by that, do not contain damaged and dead tissues and cells, suffer from only lack of water, and even the last remnants of moisture in them are very evenly distributed, so all survive almost until the last possible moment. Only when the effects of drought exceeds a specified limit values, they begin to die, and it happens relatively quickly. After reaching the limit value is the issue of death a matter of hours, while before that the plant survived suffer its consequences several weeks. It is necessary to take into consideration that the drought in the wild is something completely different than the drought in a pot, where the plant without watering may die after a few days. In the wild are large supplies of water stored also relatively deep underground. For example, maize is able to take roots as well to a depth of over 4 meters, and even though most plant parts are supplied with water and nutrients from a depth of 20-50 cm, during the lack of moisture deeper roots can serve as an "the last reserve". In the case that the effects of drought were not so destructive, the plants are able almost always rapidly recover after its remission.
On the contrary, a plant that was exposed to electricity, has almost from the beginning a certain percentage of damaged and dead cells, that eventually even slightly increase. This process is at some point stopped and almost does not continue on, or only very insignificantly. Weakening of tissues, that is caused by by the described phenomena, continues throughout the rest of the growing season. On the contrary, in the beginning, immediately after the passage of electric current, and even many days after, the situation described on the mechanical properties of plant parts has almost no effect, even if the plant was by the action of the electric current relatively seriously damaged even killed.
Besides the color contrasts may as well happen to contrasts of shades, probably reflected interference of waves of visible light on the microscopic structure of barley awns (similar to diffraction grating) during various phases of the ear rotation. There happen a change from the stage "straight up" to state "straight down", a total of 180 angular degrees.
A separate chapter is color and shade differences that occur during full heading of barley. Between full headed and not full headed barley occurs enormous contrast and color tone difference. In the field where does not appear any underground phenomena that would significantly affect the the speed of growth and maturation, has approximately uniform soil moisture (find such a field is rather rare), occurs full heading of barley relatively evenly. The greatest change color then occurs on entire field rather evenly over several hours. On the fields, that contain various underground nonuniformities, whether geological, archaeological or industrial character, such inequalities are therefore in the period of full heading relatively well displayed, just like the color tone and a tint contrasts.
Archaeologists, fly up to observe the barley! Spring crops in mid-May, winter crops a bit earlier. It is an information about full heading time period. However, barley crop provides relatively interesting shadow and color contrasts virtually throughout the whole growing season.
Other "spike type" cereals, ie wheat, rye, eventually triticale, almost do not display anything like this after any damage by electricity. Perhaps only fading of the uppermost leaf, but such a phenomenon would be necessary to verify by a longer-term observation.
After the discharge of lightning may very often occur phenomena, which would otherwise, under any circumstances never have occurred spontaneously. It may be:
Visualisation (partial, hints), of last year's or before last year tramlines. () Given the current gradual expansion of automated systems, used phenomenon last year's cultivation tracks that could be skew and perpendicular to the tracks in the following year, slowly cease to exist because cultivation machines will ever have to copy the previous ones - CTF - Controlled Traffic Farming. May be visualised used the tractor tracks during seeding (range 6m), because during the cultivating of plants are already used only every third of them (range 18m). Electrical properties of the field surface site will be more elaborated for example on pages agriculture, physics and electromagnetism.
Visualisation of structures located in such a depth that would otherwise not be visualized, or structures whose properties otherwise would not appear like cropmarks at all or almost not at all. For example, structures that cause a significant changes in soil resistivity, but are not characterized by any significant changes such as humidity or storage of nutrients in their surroundings (on the air shots from different periods are not observable either as soilmarks, cropmarks or snowmarks ). May be a larger metal objects lying below the level of deep plowing, wood holding moisture.
Visualisation of seeding (sowing) symptoms that would be otherwise in vegetation not at all or hardly observable (see). These short sections into which the mechanism seeder pulled over twice. Above all, the "teeth" on the edge of the field where at the edge of the field seeder meander intersect with area sown over passing edge of the field (photo). Another electrical resistance may also appear in tramlines, where seeder passed. The range of seeder is 6m, further during the rest of the vegetation period crops are cultivated with a sprayer range 18m, which is also a range of tramlines observed on the air photographs. Demonstrably higher conductivity show tracks at the edge of the field, because they are passed through more times, and in close proximity are tractors turns. In their vicinity are therefore best reflected the effects of the electric current passage through plants and also damaging currents are conducted through them to the greatest distance.
The phenomenon is still only partially explored, will be further tested in the longer term. The observation is still in the stage of a qualified estimate. (several years of observations and measurements, evaluation of several thousand aerial shots with the corresponding state of vegetation)
Very likely is a symptom of the discharge current passing through relatively frequent seeder "overlaps visualisation" (seeding marks). Soil is there passed with seed drill two times, there is therefore clearly different (higher) conductivity, twice the germinated seeds, higher amout of vegetative material and therefore higher amount of moisture there. Still, without the effects of electrical current probably by far not appear such seeder overlaps visualisation ("teeth" on the edge of the field, drill runs into places already sown). Because the crop is otherwise able to different local conditions and higher (double) sowing density at the point of overlap be very well adapted, creates a lower number offshoots and without the action of electricity would be color differences practically unnoticeable, almost zero. After action of electricity are significantly more affected plants in places with double aeration and seeding, with significantly lower electrical resistance of soil, and it will appear as over several days delay in growth. Plants affected by electricity behave like after transplanting, and for some time slow down or almost stop growing. Sowing symptoms do not belong to archeology, are explained elsewhere, but would assist to identify the field of crop, which was at least partially affected by the energy of lightning discharge. In some cases, when the field was not affected directly by lightning, the electricity was only conducted there from nearby pathways and tramlines, need not stalks bend down at all. EFP - action of electricity below the level of lodging (damaging, weakening), but which is still possible cause a slowdown of growth and differences in the rate of maturation. Probably only a few percent lethal dose, depending on the type of plant.
Less aggressive effects of electric current in described actions on crop vegetation need not be nearly as devastating, like in the case of direct hit into the field, it can dispense almost or entirely without lodging (damaging, weakening) ( ). They are only a secondary and much weaker effects of discharge electricity from lightning that hit only structures on the edge of the field or in its vicinity, and directly in the crop field did not operate. Trees, shrubs, limits, field paths near the field. Although certain part of electric energy was distributed over the field through the soil surface, preferably and significantly more through locations with lower resistance - tramlines, seeder overlaps. In described case it is not as much energy that could cause lodging (damaging, weakening). But may cause moderate slowdown, retarded growth and maturation of plants in described locations with lower resistance (between them as well belong points underground, where they may be located various better conductive structures). In those cases may also happen to increasing of cropmarks contrast, caused by archaeological and other entities located underground, whose effects in the crop otherwise would not have been observable at all. They exhibit almost only change of electrical resistance in their immediate vicinity, and otherwise not at all or hardly at all. Through the passage of electricity in their vicinity may thus be observable as cropmarks also structures that are located in such a depth, that their presence through observable changes in structure, color, shade and appearance of the crop in the other years has no effect. Plants may be also slightly faded, but unlike direct hit in the area of actual crop field, are able to successfully recover from weaker damage. In the vicinity of tramlines close to the field borders may also in such a case result in bending crop to the ground. ( ) The effects of electric current, various amounts of electrical energy (below lethal, far below lethal, not noticeable, lethal, above lethal, highly above lethal) will be elaborated much more detailed in the section EFP. First, there will be located a few photos from the experiments that suggest a lot and are able greatly contribute to the understanding of described processes.
After a direct hit of lightning discharge into the field are locations approximately in the middle between the tramlines (lodged (damaged, weakened) crop in a very great distance from point of the strike, very often even around the whole field boundaries. At first is the seed drill passing around the boundary of the field and after that is gradually running-in there back from the standard parallel tramlines. ( )), which are likely to encounter currents conducted from two directions, as well as locations at the edge of the field, aerated twice ( ) during the standard seeding procedure between locations most affected, where there is often
In the case of direct hit into the field thus may be made visible by the lightning discharge as cropmarks of archaeological origin also such structures that otherwise would not be visible under any circumstances. It's because they are too deep, or already have too little contrast, so they can not be without the help of electric power recognized under any circumstances. In some cases may be visualized directly some archaeological and other objects, whether as a part of regular shapes in crop, or as a parts of structures of commonly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop, but only if they are not completely lost between other lodged (damaged, weakened) crop and stay even a little recognizable. Sometimes it is possible to observe such an object also between commonly flattened (damaged, weakened) crop, because while that outside crop is "only" lying on the ground, just above it may be completely dead, thanks to a much higher conductivity of the soil around the subject and much higher currents acting on the vegetation. Immediately after lodging (damaging, weakening) such a situation yet may not be almost recognizable, but after a few days will the crop begin turn yellow, and over time completely dies. Dead stems will no longer even partially raise back thanks to phototropism and geotropism, unlike all other.
Sometimes it may be just a fallen remnants of agricultural technology that lies below the deep plowing. Sometimes they can also be ruined parts of airplanes from the world wars that may be also in such a depth, that would not appear like cropmarks without the lightning discharge under any circumstances. Even among commonly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop may be some underground structures recognizable as for example while in most areas is the crop only commonly lying on the ground, above the underground metal object may be completely dead.
Překladač Described objects have one major common feature. If within a distance of several meters (estimated at no more than 20, rarely a little more) from them appear the lightning discharge into the field of crop, thus that it reflected on its vitality, they are always visualized, and very similarly at the very same place. This happens usually even after several days, even weeks, after the lightning discharge. Because to an average density of lightning discharges in the temperate regions such case was not observed yet, because every such object is waiting to be redisplayed at an average of about 500 years. Whereas that even in temperate zone there relatively demonstrably occur places where lightning discharges hit a little more often, and many discharges are multiple branched, it may not be necessary in some cases to wait that long, but only about 50 to 100 years. Even so, the occurrence of these items will be mentioned in the predictions (forecast), because it is not absolutely necessary to wait for 50 or 300 years, until some new lightning discharge reappears in the field. Is sufficient dig them up, so as the first request permission from an understanding farmer, after harvest grab a pickaxe and go.
Some interesting images might discover in their archives aerial archaeologists. They fly over all near and above the objects of their interest a little more, and already much longer than those interested in crop circles. Although those are near and over every discovered Crop Circles flocking after like wasps, but otherwise they are in shooting landscapes and sceneries from above already of no interest. Is not at all excluded that aerial archaeologists have in their archives some images of very interesting cropmarks, even if only the first type (surface), which simply decided to all that self‑declared Crop Circles explorers never show, what is no surprise.
Another group of researchers who could find something in their photographic archives, military professionals of are aerial survey. Shots would have to first declassify. Quite certainly is possible to count on the fact that if they ever have anything like that on their shots found, explorers Crop Circles would be the last ones to whom anything like that have shown.
End of archaeological considerations
Three secret meetings of Aeronautical archaeologists
Aerial archaeologists would have on their photos already surely seen a lot. Just possible to have a look for example at some of thousands and thousands of their shots. It is rumored that celebrities around the world that deal with aerial archeology, held on the issue of Crop Circles in the past three secret meetings. Because the meetings were secret, it is not known their date, but some of the most important results of their discussions were to the public over all just infiltrated.
By the way, it is worth noting that the man who can be clearly seen as the founder of aerial archeology, Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford, spent childhood and adolescence in Hampshire in southern England. Already during the teenage years he was impressed with burial mounds, clay ramparts and ditches, scattered across the landscape. Southern England is therefore possible to call a double genius loci of the Aerial Archaeology, because the whole region there is by archeological entities, located underground, literally peppered with.
The main center of the occurrence Crop Circles can be identified the junction of Avebury settlements, and from it 8 km south Alton Barnes. This is an area that is in terms of archeology and aerial archeology really "very alive". Within a radius of 125-170 km away from there are almost all Crop Circles sites that have ever been discovered in the United Kingdom. Hampshire is located about 45 km southeast from them. Directly adjacent to Wiltshire, where they are situated that mentioned two settlements.
At first, they defined the basic concept:
Characteristics of explorers who are engaged in Crop circles:
Crop Circles explorers are mostly just only sciolist semi-intellectuals, half-educated, who many years only parasitize on the "Crop Circles research". They do not make anything else than that are "exploring" the mysteries, in respect of which themselves only believe, that they are for all humanity once and for all completely irresolvable. In the opinion of Crop Circles explorers is the possibility of resolving the Crop Circles problem ranging completely out of the possibilities and research horizon of the whole humanity. Never anyone around the world will be able to resolve them, because throughout the long years are not able make that even themselves, "Great Crop Circles Explorers". According to their own opinion of the "Great Crop Circles Explorers" there is nobody else in the whole world who would be able to understand the mystery of regular shapes in the crop better than themselves. Yet even they themselves are far from being able to detect the great majority of patterns that has ever appeared in the whole world. (example - Google Earth) Instead of tryng on the basis of some objective findings try find a way to some real solutions, ever patiently become entangled more and more in spider webs of their own delusions and fictions, in which for nearly managed to hang themselves .- miniature - Source:
At the first meeting, professionals of aerial archeology among other things, introduced each other with some photos of their researches from different countries. They took special account of southern England, especially around such as Yorkshire, Westminster, Oxfordshire, Salisbury and many related areas. They explored a number of historical aerial photographs of the listed areas. Compared a variety of cropmarks that were observable there. The actual photos that were used at this meeting, are not known, but as an example could serve two images, published in the publication Flights Into Yesterday, Leo Deuel, St, Martin's Press, 1969.
One is dated 1949:
One of the two circular iconic objects (henges) at Hutton Moor at Ripon in Yorkshire, as they appeared on the wheat field in the summer of 1949
another is not dated, estimated from a year between 1945 - 1955
Crowmarsh in Oxfordshire, southern England: cropmarks over crowded ditches reveal the existence of the burial mounds of the Bronze Age, completely leveled to the ground, and among them two parallel straight lines.
By comparing the cropmarks on a series of aerial photographs from various periods the participants the first secret meetings aerial archeology reached to define the final protocol, that was:
1) "The set of measures of aerial archeology to crop circles surveys":
Any researcher, who is surprised to the fact that in some crop fields, mainly in southern England, are sometimes found regular, mostly circular, but also other shapes, and the same or similar formations, even though with less frequency, are located also on many other fields with cereals all over the world, and who considers further that for the occurrence of similar structures is not possible to find any logical explanation, should be once and for all and eternally named "A little Tomnoody"
After several years, organized the second meeting, which dealt with by examining other archival aerial photographs on which was the first final report is somewhat modified:
2) "Change of The set of measures of aerial" ... further matches to the first, only at the end of was the definition "A little Tomnoody" changed to "Tomnoody".
After a few more years the third meeting was organised, where photographs were examined mainly from recent years. The final report was again altered.
3) "The second set of measures, reconstruction of aerial" ... continuing again matches, and the definition of " Tomnoody " was changed to " Great Tomnoody ".
then was organizing of any other Aerial Archaeologists meetings, working with the issue of Crop Circles, definitively abandoned.
Following paragraph does not belong directly to archeology, but relates to the history
Craters in the fields:
In many places in the world occur in fields relatively deep underground unexploded bombs, that would be never plowed up (well below 80 cm), some with advanced decomposition of envelope and content, and completely destroyed triggering mechanism. Some even unexploded probably due to a successful sabotage for example in the factory Pilsen Škoda Co. and others, were falling without triggering mechanism, or mechanism completely ineffective and impaired. Lightning discharge, that is conducted in the underground just exactly through them, would be acting just exactly like such a trigger mechanism. Decomposition products of the bomb shell (iron) contribute to the multiple increased conductivity of soil in the vicinity of rusting bomb.
By the way: each crater in the field, which was formed after the impact of air bomb during the World War, created in the field highly accurate circular crater. When it was later filled with some soil and plowed (drawing), in its underground structure remained to some extent preserved the structure of bombed circle, which can manifest itself in the growing crop like classic Cropmark, and where the impact of Lightning discharge in the vicinity of as electricity amplified vegetation symptom Electricity accelerated cropmark. (explosion - a circle. The Lightning discharge is also a explosion)
Archaeological reasoning 2
In the archives of aerial archeology institutions may be located many images of never discovered and explored Crop Circles. Aerial archeology around the world almost since its foundation cooperates very closely with military aerial survey, which for that purposes (often only for them) declassified a huge series of aerial photographs of land surface (see). There may be located many never published Crop Circles, which aerial archeology professionals never tried to bring out and publish. There is really not the slightest reason of it, because the aviation archeology has always been belonging between entirely respectable disciplines of science and research. The existence and exploration of Crop Circles is still classified as a highly questionable activity, carried out to a large extent by highly dubious and suspicious individuals (which is certainly of the greater degree true ). Their creation is attributed to individuals even much more dubious and suspicious.
Probably fast approaching the moment when the issue of exploring similar structures will be to these questionable individuals completely ruthlessly and definitely forbidden, possibly even with police assistance. Probably they will be prevented from visiting such places, at least during a period when there are demonstrably present life-threatening chemicals, poisons and drugs. Objects that they so happy examined, and through their "researches" for a long time tried in the rest population of the planet called Globe evoke a general impression that the finding of the causes of their origin is virtually impossible. Objects may be able to already eternally into the future to include only between the so-called Cropmarks, symptoms. Subtype caused by the differences of electrical resistance of materials and environment, located on the site where they were originated, and by an overcharge of electrical charge and energy.
In the vast majority are some of the differences described above retrieved just because it occurred on the site such excess electrical charge, that for the first time after hitting RS forehead similar differences in conductivity environment created almost chaotically. Sometimes even quite regularly thanks to resonance and interference by itself, thanks to the huge excess of electric charge and energy. In simple terms, there is such an excess of electrical charge and energy, that for it is any electrical resistance of the materials present there too large. Initially, attempts to continue on "by their own ways" up to a distance of several meters. In some places the resistance of the closest environment momentarily reduces by several orders of magnitude (disruptive discharge of dielectric, impulse breakdown), mainly by ionization and instantaneous heating up to several thousand degrees Celsius also Fahrenheit.
After the initial more or less chaotic movement of electric charge, energy is carried continuing already in a common way, especially through places with the lowest electrical resistance. It may be conducted by the earth's surface and just beneath that sometime even hundreds of meters, most often only within a single crop field. During its passage affects, and to a certain extent damage plants just there on mentioned locations with lower resistance. Some of them are killed, but their number rarely exceeds a few percent at most, which would probably not been objectively determinable, due to the natural inequalities. Plants only damaged will begin to show after some time changes, especially and maturation growth retardation, weaken, also may bend to the ground. Such changes are already on the entire area highly well observable, preferably from a distance or from above. Such changes are already on the entire area very well observable, preferably from a distance or from above, using classic methods of aerial archeology observation. Areas with lower electrical resistance caused by underground artifacts on them may be fairly reliably marked. By another method would be really very hardly detectable.
As an example here will be displayed an aerial photograph the surface of the Earth, that was acquired through Google Earth. located There is relatively typical example of a formation, which is now, probably only temporarily called "Crop Circle". Has never been discovered, by Crop Circles explorers, let alone explored. Those are with such formations almost continuously engaged, because they think that they are exploring something mysterious. But they must be first able to find them. As an example here will be displayed an aerial photograph the surface of the Earth, that was acquired through Google Earth. There is located relatively typical example of a formation, which is now, probably only temporarily, called "Crop Circle". Has never been discovered by Crop Circles explorers, let alone explored. Those are with such formations almost continuously engaged, because they think that they are exploring something mysterious. But they must be first able to find them.
End of archaeological considerations 2
A note outside of archeology: Is not, of course, completely quite true that the pattern was never seen by anyone neither discovered. Those who have that never published the crop pattern certainly saw was Mr. combine operator. How is it possible to imagine, Mr. Combine Operator did not call to discovered pattern any journalist nor mystery explorer. Mr. Combine oOperator is not mentally defective.
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Wheat field - a record of the lightning magnetic field lines
Shocking, perplexing, surprising, difficult to believe, but also eye-opening similarity
Wheat field - record of magnetic field lines generated by the lightning discharge
Nearly one million Amperes (known school experiments - maximum 20 - 30 Amperes)
Exactly at the moment of the lightning discharge flow through corn stalks induced and conducted (ionized air, corona discharge) electric currents. Thanks to that stalks and other plant parts may exhibit electromagnetic properties. They may thus act like magnetized compass needles, and electromagnetic forces are momentarily deflecting them to the ground in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending on the relative ratio, direction and phase difference of the passaging electric currents. Temporary mechanical changes and tensions may also create some meanwhile invisible mechanical damage, oriented in direction. Such microscopic directionally oriented damages are able by gradual growing of damaged tissues later cause gradual directionally oriented bending of all stalks in one direction (CW or CCW). Magnetic fields of an average lightning discharges are at least ten thousand times stronger than that of Earth's magnetic field. Another part of the work may be performed by enormous electrostatic forces thanks to that leaves and stalks of plants behave like leaves and stalks of electroscopes. Diameters of the circles approximately represent the range of the lightning discharge electromagnetic forces. In addition to all that, however, the crop pattern occurs at least several days, sometimes up to several weeks after the lightning hit. It is because the affected plant tissues weaken very slowly, due to huge inertia and consequently very slowly ongoing changes in plants (EPP, Chronology). Because sometimes on the locality may take place very complex interferences and resonances, it may sometimes create a very intricate pattern. A single lightning discharge radiates energy to which the electric locomotive would travel thousands kilometers. Average (!) Discharge. (simplified explanation)
It was one of the greatest Natural joke - mystification, clever trick, by that was the Mother Nature kidding the whole perplexed mankind hundreds, thousands years.
With mentioned ideas is possible not agree, also possible protest against them, but it maybe really all that is possible to do with it or against it. So called Jerry Cimrman's postulate.
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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by