Crop circles arise after lightning strikes. Like a photographic record of the course of electromagnetic lines of force and electric currents through the raster of the field plants on the surface.
More devices from common laboratory practice, simulating
and their creation process in cereal fields by the lightning discharge
Note first of all here on this site are all idolaters, worshippers and admirers of UFOs, flying saucers, aliens, and similar nonsense, mysterious, crazy and unverifiable explanation of the causes of crop circles. Followers and supporters of such explanation as microwaves, hedgehogs, kangaroos, the transfer of thoughts. Do not read next paragraphs.
The Wilson cloud chamber
On some crop circle shapes can be observed that similar processes took place there like motion of particles in the Wilson cloud chamber, or in bubble chamber, but in a somewhat larger scale. In the devices described are recorded tracks of particles whose mass is expressed in atomic mass units, 1/12 C = 1 Da, or fractions thereof. Proton, neutron, antiproton - the approximate weight is one Dalton, electron and positron - approximately 1/1000 Da. The particles are moving mostly in a magnetic field. Their energy is expressed in electron volts - eV, 1.16 x 10-19 J, and the electron charge is 1.16 x 10-19 C. In the field with cereals were moving particles of weight from tenth of grams to tens of grams, ie the order of more than 1023 times heavier, their electric charge can be expressed in units of Coulomb, or much more, energy in kilojoules, ie again or 1020 times higher than that of atomic and subatomic particles. Have been for some time exposed to millions of volts, currents of hundreds of thousands of amperes and magnetic field many millions of times higher than in the Wilson cloud chamber. The attached image of the crop circle in the upper right very strikingly reminds spirally - sinusoidal movement of charged particles in a magnetic field of lightning discharge. It is possible to compare with the track of an electron in a magnetic field - picture below, whose record length is 25 cm. Was obtained from the website sciencephoto.com, made at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (web), one from many laboratories of University of California (web), a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (web). Similar "particle tracks", is possible to find on many other images of crop circles, and will be paid attention to them on a special page. Temporarily please excuse nonexistent link. The referenced site will also describe some probable properties of "particles", thanks to which that described patterns of crop circles, or some their parts were fabricated.
Information will be expanded later, especially in the reference. Anyway, tries someone search for extraterrestrials, when seeing the images of trajectories of subatomic particles, such as in Wilson cloud chamber, or any result from CERN experiments?
Interference and resonance
It is quite likely that sometime during crop circle creation there occurred to an extraordinary coincidence, especially in the case of complex geometric patterns. Very strong resonances and interferences between all described forces able to participate during their formation. These mechanical forces - air flowing, earthquakes degree of 3-4, shock waves and pressure waves, resonance of underground caverns, as well as electromagnetic and electrostatic forces. In all enumerated cases, within a distance from several meters to tens of meters from the point of lightning impact, the forces were huge, completely beyond any ordinary human imagination. Some crop circle patterns then look like a record of resonance and interference phenomena that have occurred near some cereal fields. Lichtenberg, Kyrilian also may participate. Left accompanying photograph showing images from the demonstrative experiment proving the possibility of electrical induction in plants and their parts.
Example of electric current induction in plants
Crop circle figures above are remarkably similar to magnetic field patterns, like in metal, ferromagnetic sawdust, or some PC simulations of electromagnetic fields. The lightning discharge works like a conductor, placed perpendicularly (not in every cases) to the ground. Huge electromagnetic field is created around it, mostly circular, thus able to evoke electrical induction in all subjects in the area, including plants.
Pictures resemble shapes of electromagnetic field created by one, two and six of equivalent conductors (discharges of lightning).
In this way, vegetation acts in somewhat the manner of a chemical developer of exposed photographic plates: it throws up the latent pictures. Flights into yesterday: the story of aerial archaeology, , page 38. , St. Martin's Press NY 1969
It is interesting that very similar shapes would be likely created thanks to the radiation interferences, even just one eccentrically impacting, of consequent electric discharges within the expanding air column.
A little of physics...
Next example relates to an average lightning, meant the most important part - the Return Stroke, see lightning. As an example could be noted, that each sole electron in lightning discharge, transfers an energy of the order of 1030 times larger than needed electron to jump from the level "s" to the level "p" in hydrogen atom. That looks really enough. Count of electrons in such an average lightning discharge is approximately 1021, that looks like a lot, too. The electrical charge is around 300 Coulombs, which in turn apparently does not look like much.
By the way, here is a link to a note that is located for sure at another place, because some readers would really not have understand and accept it
Several more theoretical reasoning here:
Regularity of patterns and statistically highly over-frequent notable high-precision multi-axis symmetry
What is still very difficult - trying to explain one of very interesting crop circles property - very precise symmetry by more than one axis - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, even more, also exact central symmetry and very accurate mirror reflection. One of possible, but with difficulty verifiable considerations provides, that in the lightning discharge - plasma, during its impact on the ground, just before and after, able to create something like a gigantic analogy of atomic and molecular structures. Crystallography, atomic and molecular orbitals and their hybridized variants, conjugated double bonds, conjugated triple bonds, cyclic and chain compounds of carbon and silicon. It is hardly provable theory, of course. It should be noted, that in the plasma discharge, where may be present several millions of volts per meter, its length longer than several kilometers, and sometime carries a current near million amperes, may happen things, that would want, and would be able, to examine hardly nobody...
However, in some paragraph later will appear a description of a process, in which can be assumed - both theoretically and practically - sometime in the future, of course, much higher demonstrability. Rotating electromagnetic field. A paragraph before a consideration of possible comparison impact of water droplets into a liquid or into a thin layer of a fluid, which are all for theoretical research, also practical more accessible.
- some notes about lightning:
Immediately after the lightning discharge, meaning the first Return Stroke, the strongest part of the discharge, during which there is for a short time, a few millionths of seconds, only a very thin column of plasma, 5 - 10 mm, which immediately begins rapidly expand into the surroundings, and will set in motion surrounding air. Beams of electromagnetic radiation from the point of origin - the channel of lightning, are moving at the speed of light, the expansion of the air column happens speed comparable to the speed of sound, that is around million times slower. The channel of the lightning radiates energy of all wavelengths to its surroundings, also supplies heat to ambient air, consequently kinetic energy, many millions joules, per one meter of the electrical discharge. During a fraction of a second, the mass with rapidly moving column of air, encounters into the stationary air, in a distance of tens of meters from the channel of lightning, and at this time may occur a subsequent lightning stroke -Restrike, secondary stroke, inside this rapidly moving column of air. The term "rapidly moving column of air" is pronounced only relatively, of course, because the beams of the electromagnetic waves are moving and reflecting inside it million times faster, speed of light.
From the viewpoint of consequent lightning strokes, the column of air may be regarded as a stationary object, cylinder, very sharply bounded. Relative to sound velocity, suppose, with a diameter of 10 m - 0.03 sec after the first Return Stroke, main discharge. Restrike, the secondary discharge inside of this column is moving at 100 - 200 thousands km/h, and electromagnetic beams radiated by that, are moving at light velocity. During only hundred millionths of a second, what is the time during that is radiated power of the vast part of subsequent lightning stroke - more 99%, is the column of air edge moving "only" sound velocity, to a distance 30 mm. Electromagnetic radiation from the subsequent electric discharge moved at the same time to a distance of 30 km, and that rays, propagating in all directions, may be within such a column about 300 - 30000 (depending on the angle) times bounced and create many sorts of resonance and interference effects.
The border and the air inside the cylinder will be very intensively ionized and electrically conductive. Part of the radiation of subsequent electric discharge may appear as induced voltage on the cylinder wall and grounded. The same way can develop legendary narrow circles, that would not be able create in vegetation even a child by walking through it. There was also in progress a shock wave in the air, initially much faster than sound speed, gradually slowing down. Shock wave moves faster before the blast wave, and thus, under certain circumstances, one restrike is able to create two circles created thanks to the induction. From multiple dimensions of some circles would be possible some guess how long lasted the reflections inside the air column created by the first major lightning discharge. What distance approximately offended radiated electromagnetic beams inside the column, thanks to repeated reflections.
Width of described narrow rings ranges from 10 to 20 cm, which corresponds to half a thousandth of a second in relation to the speed of sound, during that time light moves 150 km. This is a very approximate estimate. Possible, that within temporarily created column of air may take place the total reflection of electromagnetic rays. Under certain circumstances, some rays would reflect inside column much longer than only during the subsequent electric discharge. Able to move much longer distance and create much more complicated interferences. Total reflection occurs when the beam makes angle sufficiently small - smaller than a limit angle, in relation to the tangent angle of the cylinder shell at the point of contact.
Air column speed against the speed of light is really negligible, 1/106, but thanks to very slow, nonzero and constant, also very uniform expansion of the air column can be formed within that very interesting and complicated resonance and interference structures. More detailed description of this process will be described for instance on the page lightning mechanics - wave interferences inside expanding air column.
Something similar is possible to say about the possibilities of multiple reflections and interferences of electromagnetic beams inside column of air, rapidly expanding. In view of the interest of this topic, and the fact, that some patterns really indicate similar way of creating, some of the newly created subpage of lightning section will specifically pay attention to this possibility. It is essential, that in a similar way always originates a circle as the base, and inside that is possible find various sorts of resonances, fractals, also interferences or combined crop circle patterns. On the diagram is a graph of temperature and pressure inside a cylinder of combustion motor. Link to some examples will be placed here. Similarity of the process inside the cylinder of internal combustion engine, simulation of a device from a standard engineering practice, probably after the closest Restrike: a regular equivalent to an explosion, or more like controlled combustion, taking place inside the cylinder of internal combustion or diesel engine.
Metaphorically, possible characterize formation of some crop circle shapes as an analogy of resonances and interference between sound waves and electromagnetic waves. Something like natural radio, television, oscilloscope, and photography together.
Crop circles - crop circles
Drop of water - jump phenomenon, pulse falling from top...
Another possibility of creation periodic crop circle structures is the dissemination of enormous overpressure into the surrounding environment, like rays of liquid after impact of droplet into the water level. Click photo to follow the source.
From the second photograph are shown several impacts of drops in a thin layer of liquid, very interesting is the last. In the case of the lightning strike into the field possible compare to an impact of an intensive, strong pulse in a thin layer of liquid. The main difference is that in the case of the lightning discharge is such a phenomenon comparable to a matchbox impact, heavy as a locomotive. zajfyz.physics.muni.cz
Crop circles - crop circles
Rotating electromagnetic field, oscilloscope
One possibility, that would explain high-precision multi-axis symmetry of some crop circle pictograms is, that consecutive electric discharges, approximately 20-30 millisecond one after other, appearing in distances only a few meters from one another, are able to create at this point strong rotating electromagnetic field. It can be more than three-phase, there may create various resonance and interference, and may affect other on that place appearing electron beams and thus "paint on the field" many various symmetrical crop circle pictograms. Everything happened in fractions of seconds. See lightning.
For example, the effect of three consecutive, 20ms interval pulses in a triangle at a distance of tens of meters from one another over the surface of a cereal field, create for a moment rotating electromagnetic field. Although only for a split second, but huge, beyond any ordinary human imagination. Thanks to generated electromagnetic field could very easy operate an electric engine with an output of approximately more Terawatt. Is possible to derive that such electromagnetic field, also electromagnetic field of every lightning, would affect on plants not only by induction, but also mechanically.
In that while possible to describe plants acting as the electric conductor - current induced, also currents conducted pass through them, thus they appear like electromagnets and electromagnetic fields may act on them by mechanical forces, leaving in them mechanical effects, also damage. In addition to everything described here, at that crop circle point may occur various oscillations - dissonant, harmonic, also damped oscillations. Large amount of crop circle pictograms imitate a record of damped oscillations, when the largest circle is followed by a smaller, followed by an even smaller, more and more, often more than ten. Some similar crop circle photos also serve as an example on this page 1, 2, 3, hundreds of other possible observe through Crop Circles webs.
All happenings described here, occurred above some cereal, or corn, poppy, rape and any other crops, may cause there almost no visible effects. Initially, in the early days, because they were only so-called "recorded" into regular raster formed by individual plants. Their visible changes or weakness leading to their drop to the ground, that occur after many days, weeks or even longer. exposition - described there. The crop circle is recorded, but still absolutely invisible.
Biotic and abiotic stress factors
From the point of view of practical and experimental agriculture and botany is possible to classify the consequences of electrity to herbal plants between abiotic stress factors (other e.g. excess or lack of moisture, light, oxygen, deficiency of CO2, minerals, exposure to high or low temperatures, mechanical stress). Their influence is sometime also very slow, visually observable many days from the beginning.
Furthermore, the consequences of electricity are in some cases visually almost identical to those of herbicides, that are sorted between biotic stress factors. The onset of their effect also lasts minimally for several days, even in the case of plants, that were affected by the dose highly over the lethal limit.
Any casual witness, situated at that point exactly at the moment of crop circle pictogram origination, would be never able provide any evidence about that. Possible to convince from the pictures. Would not be interested in something like crop circle pictograms and their creation at all. Would have totally different problems. On the right picture is clearly visible "the signature of main culprit" on the tree. On the left picture, there is also present, but no as such significant and noticeable. More detailed information - warning
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For a basic introduction to historical perspectives on the issue of crop circles possible visit Wikipedia - Crop circle. Although most of the explanations, submitted there, falls or almost entirely belongs under the Pseudoscience (Junk science), i.e. appertains to the Category: Pseudoscience, however at least may serve as a basic information about the current view on the whole issue.
Above all, it must be emphasized, that the explanation shown here, or any page of this website, in any case does not deal with concepts or fields of human activities such as Esotericism, Parapsychology, Psychotronics, Paranormal phenomena, Ufology, Spiritism, Astrology, Occult, Numerology, Oracle, Superstition.
Belief in aliens, Extraterrestrial life, including Extraterrestrials in fiction, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Astrobiology, Unidentified flying object, Military disc-shaped aircraft, Flying saucer, visitors from Universe, Outer space, Galaxy, Milky Way.
Magic (paranormal), Black magic, Witches' Sabbath, Witchcraft, Supernatural phenomena, Miracles. Poltergeist, 2012 phenomenon, Conspiracy theory, Psychokinesis, Shamanism, Mysticism, or any other field of Pseudoscience or Junk science from the Category: Pseudoscience.
Tests and Experiments
Some experiments were carried out, photographs exist and will be published
Will be performed, sometime, experiments with impact of a sparks into a powdered material. Pigment dispersed, particle size in the order of micrometers, video captured at high speed (420-1000 pic/s), some results later here.
Even though electric sparks, that were used in the test, transfer only very little amount of energy - approx 0.03 Joule, exhibit all parameters of explosions, including shock waves and pressure waves.
Home electronics and laboratory devices growing on a field.
Possible to derive, that concurrent and subsequent lightning discharges, which proceed in a very similar moment at a small distance from one another, and through which are flowing hundreds of thousands amperes, all that create a very strong, huge, electromagnetic fields, also rotational, around them. All of them are able directly influence with one another, attracting, repel and creating resonances and interferences. Something like TV or oscilloscope vacuum tube. The lightning discharge is similar to an electron beam. "A little" stronger than that in TV - approx 1015. Similarly stronger are electrostatic and electromagnetic fields up to a distance of several meters. Natural oscilloscope, creating crop circle lissajous figures.
It is also possible to imagine that during an impact of electron beam, in the case of consecutive or paralel lightning discharges, that is streaming throughout the very strong rotating electromagnetic field may arise highly symmetrical crop circle pictograms, according to many axes.
crop circleimage is possible to recognize paths with classically damaged and bended cereal, following tramlines near the border of the field, more rutted, better holding humidity, higher conductivity, more thoroughly damaged. Very similar effect possible observe in absolute every of cereal fields, where appear any RDF, Randomly Downed Formations, commonly damaged cereals. Is everything just a coincidence? Much more photos available. Possible, that may be added together induction and conduction of currents created in tracks. They are much closer together than anywhere else, more thorough. Pattern could be created similar to originating chladni patterns the oscillating membrane, which in this case the Earth's surface. During and a short time after the impact of any discharge lightning really noticeably and measurably vibrated, which can be determined from seismology. On the point can be measured, although slight, but registrable earthquake intensity from 2 to 4 on the Richter scale. Picture source: www.physics.ucla.edu. Ground oscillations and behavior of plants, simulating waves on the water surface may also participate. It could be also a combination of multiple type events.
Electric conductivity of the phase interface
shock wave - air, plasma - air and more
Explanation of the presence of one or more highly narrow circles in some crop circle patterns by formation a charge on the interface between the shock wave, or a very rapidly expanding plasma, and a stationary or slowly moving air, and charge transfer, or a substantial part of energy of any subsequent or simultaneous electric discharges, through the medium of this phase interface. At the phase interface of the shock waves propagating through the air and other elements contained in it. Dust, humidity, highly ionized particles, there happens to enormous friction, formation of secondary electric charges, and most likely has a very high electrical conductivity. Such a highly narrow circles thus maybe something like momentary record of consecutive lightning discharges, electromagnetic fields, induced currents and currents leaded by conductors of phase interface of air column boundary, momentary present above the crop vegetation. See accompanying crop circle photos.
shapes vs irregular, random shapes
in the vicinity of which are irregular structures
crop circlephoto can be observed irregularly damaged cereal, which typically occurs quite frequently due to lightning discharge into the fields with cereals. This will happen after several days or weeks, chronology, where will be the process of plant tissues degradation following the passage of electrical current also photographically documented in great detail. The photograph here on the left side shows that the electrical current - power of the lightning discharge passed partly through the upper edge of the field, following tractor tracks there, both around the tramlines perpendicular to the edge, even through the geometric pattern. Regular crop circle shape and irregular damaging, and of course may not be created during a single storm, thanks to a single lightning discharge, but it is possible. That lightning, maybe one sole, only "recorded" that picture, damaging of the cereals appear up to many days later. Even weeks, depending on the amount of energy supplied - the intensity of exposure.
At first are bended to the surface only a small parts, well below one percent, several square meters, the most affected areas. Gradually, day by day, sometime hour by hour or even minute by minute, adds another, until finally, just before harvest maybe lying on the ground sometime around 5%. Sometimes more than 20% of the total area, sometimes, unfortunately, over 90 %. To clarify and document the phenomenon described in the future will possible to use the Time-lapse cameras, looks like very good work for them. For now just possible satisfy with an explanation of the phenomenon on the page and sub pages chronology. Very similar processes often occur inside the patterns of crop circles, in their vicinity and at a greater distance, and in the surrounding fields. In all places that were affected by lightning discharges electricity. Occurring since the discovery of patterns until harvest.
Also possible that probably a lot more of damaged cereal appear on those fields, where occurred two lightning discharges, one near from the second, in the interval of several weeks. The second discharge landed into the field with plants considerably weakened, and is able to cause significantly more damage. It is also possible to imagine that regular crop circle patterns is possible to create much easier on such a cereal field that should be "prepared" several weeks before. Such cases are obviously much less often than once affected site. Will be expressed statistically.
More comment on the
photo from Ancona: from some observations, it seems that one of the many factors that may participate in the creation of regular geometric patterns on cereal fields, may be the fact that on that place was in action an extremely strong lightning discharge, which occurs only a few during whole storm or even entire season. Therefore possible that exposure to everything there was really due to only one discharge, or a system of several simultaneous consecutive electric discharges, whose total duration rarely exceeds one second. The strongest part caused creation of that regular crop circle pictogram, the weaker, secondary, paralel and subsequent electric discharges caused formation of irregularly bended, damaged, weakened, in the neighborhood.
Another, really very probable possibility is that weaker electric discharges did not occur at all, that common surrounding irregular damaging formed only due to residual currents leading through tractor tracks, possibly by induction in them.
Another option that is possible to considerate during the crop circle creation, described in more details in one of the first published articles, is an alternative that a substantial portion of the lightning discharge, immediately after its forehead touched the the surface of ground, substantial part of its energy was leaded deep enough below the surface, without its energy could significantly pass through wet soil and tramlines into surrounding areas. The lightning discharge channel then acts like conductor, through which current passes deep below the Earth's surface, and is by some good current conductor, or several conductors, conducted deep underground. On the ground surface then would be created crop circle shapes that are highly similar to that created by magnetic field lines in iron filings. See photos previously on this page. For example, was observed formation of a regular crop circle patterns directly above a metal underground tank - serve as a very good current conductor - underground lightning rod. In some crop circle film documentary mentioned .
: Nodes and damaged, lying cereals
Very common bended stalks of cereals, no regular shapes, are created exactly under the same conditions as described in the crop circles. The plants are damaged under completely the same conditions, mainly by electrolysis and its products, including mechanical damage due to resulting gases, probably, depending on the overall power of the electrical discharge, also from resulting heat damage. On the sub page nodes is possible to observe, that straightening of the stalks, that were not hit by any electricity, and put back only because of mechanical initiative - experimentally, is likely due to large angle, which had to overcome, able to register mechanical damage of nodes, by their own strength. Not affecting quality of the ripened crops, stalks were skewed by only mechanical stimulus. Left accompanying photographs have traditionally been taken in places where there was never even a hint of crop circles, only commonly damaged cereals, with stalks partially or completely bent to the ground.
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This page was prepared, and all the theories here presented were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by