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13th January 2012

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continuing of precedent considerations
CZ version cz 13th January 2012 (13th Friday)

Crop circles - 3.

Phases of the lodging process - Chronology

      In this article will be simply explained some basic principles of the simplest shapes creation - common circle - by the simple unbranched lightning discharge, and the chronology of the emergence of such a circle in the course of several weeks to months after the discharge of lightning. The described principles may be applied also to much more complicated shapes. By the way, each individual circle in the crop actually commemorates Photo 1 (montage J.L.) the scheme of the passage of electric current through a straight conductor (wire), visualised by the iron fillings, that are just replaced by crop stalks. Simply exhibits, how far reached the effects of electrical discharges, and to a greater distance no longer. With this statement may existing explorers disagree, they can protest against it, they can even rebel against it and threaten with clenched fists held high, but that is really probably all what they, also any one of us can do with that or against it. So called Jerry Cimrman's postulate.

Most important of all is to note, that all the principles described here relate FIRST AND FOREMOST to quite commonly, irregullarly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop. Whether is with truly exceptional chance arised a regular pattern, for instance a circle, depends the most and only on that, how it will happen The Phase 1 - Exposition. If it occurs enough symmetrically, a regular shape may arise.


Phase 1 - Exposition.

      The lightning channel has a diameter of 5 mm, never more 10 mm (even in the case of the most powerful discharges, where appear a peak currents only a little less one million amperes, see professional literature). Bolt of lightning behaves like a wire, extended between heaven and earth, through which flows current several hundred thousand amperes, and in some cases is conducted immediately well below the ground. Not always, but it is not excluded, that the emergence of some relatively precise circles instead of the irregularly flattened (damaged, weakened) shapes is caused among other things, just by that a substantial portion of the discharge energy is diverted quite rapidly well below the ground, so that there do not appear such a great "paraite expositions" of another crop by several irregular conducting of the electricity on the soil surface and mainly by the tractor tracks. On the point may appear "a natural lightning rod" (in the underground), that diverts the discharge current quite quickly at least several meters underground, so its secondary or parallel effects (electricity, induction) outside of the reach a fairly accurate circle take only a minimal effects above ground. The rod may be of geological origin (springs, faults), archeological (iron, bronze age), even modern (collapsed war aeroplane, engineering utilities). The surface of the earth acts as a base, and the crop stalks standing on that acts as a layer of the recording material (raster). By passing the current through the "wire" is the energy radiated to the surroundings, a part of the energy is induced in plants (registrable equivalent mechanic and elecromagnetic forces, causing plant damage, and induction range is limited by very accurate circle), can be conducted to them through soil and root system (stepping voltage - very accurate circle), ionized air or corona discharge (also accurate circle). Corona discharge and surface voltage gradient hit and damage plants in the whole extent of their exposure approximately evenly, induction according to the distance from discharge channel. It is also possible that the individual listed effects may show different polarity, and their addition and subtracting creates a variety of concentric circles. All named damages appear under ideal conditions as more or less accurate circles. Conditions, at least partially similar as an ideal, is possible to try and only rarely achieve, for example in the laboratory. In nature, of course, much more difficult, but: Similar experiments (lightning discharge strike into the crop field or grass pasture), the Nature carry out much more than a billion times a year, and even sometimes it turns out well, estimated at approximately one case in a million. It is meant to create at least one relatively regular circle. All other "natural experiments" ends as a "failure" - arises "only" as an irregularly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop.

     Nature thus actually replaces "the deficiencies in used lab equipment," by the number of laboratory experiments carried out. When there in AZLK were made a million of Moskviches, or in VAZ a million of Zhiguli, here there are also some sporadic piece was made O.K. Such a rare specimen then they offered to comrade Brezhnev, but he did not use it anyhow, because it was on his taste too few armored.

     Some blades may be by the force of very intense airflows and turbulences that follow milliseconds after the discharge and do not last longer than a split second, mutually tangled and almost "bound together", to each other, intertwined and wrapped, but it's no more than a millionth of electricity affected number of stalks. They are subtly masked in the stand and found only after lodging (damaging, weakening) appeared. Probably located in an area of one square meter near the discharge channel (for each discharge). On the location could also be present rotating electromagnetic field, even more than three-phase, and operate on the plants and stalks also mechanically. Plants act as conductors through which is currently flowing induced or by conductor (eg, ionized air, soil, neighboring plants) carried current. The resistance is of the order of 1 to several Mohm/cm, depending on the stage of growth. On the site there also appear a very high voltage over several hundred thousand volts per meter and measurable currents flow through the plants. The vast majority of plants, some of which could be for a short time very substantially mechanically deflected from their equilibrium position, and thus partly mechanically damaged, return thanks to their own flexibility to the position almost indistinguishable from that in which they were located prior to discharge. There was still happening only an Exposition - to the relatively regular raster made up of plants was stored some form of electromagnetic record. On the vast majority of plants may be visually observable almost nothing, from the field region already nothing. Typically at least several days, but also weeks, almost nothing happens (visually). In fact, all that described time is already in progress The Phase 2.

     The corona discharges were already mentioned in one of the previous parts, also picture added. Discharge channel is surrounded by that as a continuous layer - sheath, in the perpendicular projection a very precise circle, and the intensity of affecting plants inside it because of its effect would be approximately uniform, unlike for example of the induced voltage. Its width depends almost only on the Return Stroke current (peak) and is of course very different for example between the discharge of 3 thousand amperes and 600 thousand. On the fact that after the lightning discharge appearing vertically into the ground may be affected corn plants quite accurately in a circle, therefore the corona discharge may contribute very significantly. Very often may not fall exactly perpendicular discharges, and thus could be explained a variety of elliptical shapes, as well as half-moons and semicircles.

     To very substantial refinement of "Circle Exposure" may even more take place at least by another two ways (see later). During the discharge can take place also very complex interference effects (mechanical and electromagnetic), but these will be described later in one of the next continuation. Under certain circumstances, set of a few, sometimes just only two discharges that fall within a several meters or a little more from each other at a time distance of several tens of milliseconds, can act as a generator of a giant rotating electromagnetic field. It is a field generated by current pulses of several hundred thousand amperes, which have a slope rise over 200 thousand amperes per MICROsecond. But about that will be described more in some really very next continuation.

     When from the Phase 1 - Exposition by the Lightning Discharge are skipped all the principles,that could result in fairly accurate circle, remained typical primary cause of common, completely irregularly lodged (damaged, weakened) shapes, appearing in crop fields. Without that cause (lightning) would otherwise on any crop field be flattened (damaged, weakened) almost nothing. But some weaker, "wheezing" discharges, may many of surrounding plants survive almost intacted until harvesting. The fact that there almost never appear some regular patterns after the lightning discharge, but mainly patterns similar eg to Photo 2, authors own photo, 2008, Czech. There are present 22kV high voltage lines on that location, that performed the function of a lightning rod. After the lightning discharge is very often distributed a substantial part of the energy over a wide area mostly by wet soil surface, most preferably through the tractor tracks. The initial lodging (damaging, weakening), appearing of all, mostly irregular shapes, occur almost by complete identical chronological procedure as described here, most often during a single night or rainy weather. The photograph was taken two to three weeks after the storm. Yet the previous day was not any lodged (damaged, weakened) stalk appearing on that crop field. Monitored daily, photographed.

     The Exposition takes effect primarily to the meristem tissues, ie in the case of the wheat, rye, barley, oats, almost exclusively from April to May, possibly up to the mid June. Also in March, some earlier storms already can occur, especially in the case of the winter crops. The creation of crop circles is up to incredibly often demonstrated "after the Storm". But such storm (just humidity, as well as any lightning and mainly its mechanic effects in that case) operated mostly as a phase 4, followed by visualising of an image that was recorded to the plants a number of weeks before. August lightning, even if they would be able to create quite incredible resonance and interference patterns, are no longer able to record something into the plants, recording material is working no longer. There may occur only mechanical effects of that late discharges, and cause lodging (damaging, weakening) of plants that appeared already on plants that were weakened by the lightning discharges long time before, sometimes during the "recording period" - March to May or a little later.


Phase 2 - Weakening of plants (stalks).

       Most of crop plants received although over limit (damaging), but not lethal dose of electricity. Those created inside them some harmful chemicals, and they started with that some way compensate. Currents conducting through, over the soil surface and beneath that caused a change in soil chemistry (pH, nutrient composition), and the situation of plants is thus very reminiscent to the conditions that occur after transplanting. It is called the transplantation shock, the plant after that compensates very similar problems, and generally tends to result in an estimate of approximately a two-week, maybe longer stagnation of growth and delayed ripening. Some plants after the lightning discharge die, in stands of cereals these are estimated just a few percent (as well as sometime 20-30%), and the inexperienced eyes of non-farmers have not the slightest chance to recognize something like that. Due to thinning down and weakening of the original crops vegetation could eventually lead to noticeable increase in the growth of weeds, which can be observed after the harvest as distinctly green areas. Photo 3  - Ancona, Italy, a pattern from the 10th June 2007. Here the situation after the harvest, obtained from Google Earth, a picture from the year 2007, coordinates N43.574443° E13.432214°. Similar ground Crop Circles photos after harvesting possible find hundreds.

     More voluminous plants (several specimens per square meter), such as potatoes, sugar beet, onion, cotton may sometimes die all, because the integral negative effects on the entire area inhabited by them are not able to survive. Mostly in a standard circle area, but farmers know it from very early times and they are not surprised even a minimally about that, as has already been mentioned in some precedent text. One of the future continuation of this series will be completely focused solely and only to serious agricultural and botanical scientists and researchers point of view to the the lightning discharges effects on the crop monocultures, as they were mentioned in serious professional agriculture journals and literature. There will be possible to make sure that appointed experts know very well what is happening there in such a case.

     The discovery of dead, or badly damaged, dying plants is always following at least several days, but also weeks after the lightning discharge. All plants, even those that were immediately killed by the discharge, are initially indistinguishable from that undamaged. Sometime later begin withering (a few days to 1-2 weeks after the discharge), and finally are completely dead. Some over-lethally affected plants may even survive for some time (show signs of life, ie metabolism). Then it depends mostly on that, who will visit that place as the first. An experienced farmer notes, that the point was hit by lightning, is not and never will be possible protect against that, and does not continue follow that problem anymore. May take a picture there and write a mention about that in some professional agriculture journal or publication. If any such place visit some ufologist, mysteriologist, or any other self-proclaimed "expert" of a crop circles surveying, also take a snap about that situation (many snaps). States that aliens probably landed there. Or they something wrote into the field, by microwaves, lasers, or preferably by some completely unknown and never detectable kind of energy (the best, because such a statement is once forever completely unprovable). May state that they were there doing something entirely else, or more things alltogether. Would write about this article to as many UFO, alien, mysteriology or similar specialised magazines as possible, what many in the world exists, and travels with that and over any mysteriology, ufology and similar conferencies around the whole world for many years.


Phase 3 - The emergence of weakened plants volumes, leaning one on another.

(water surface tension, van der Waals forces)

      Plant stalks are fading (weakening) that almost buckle under their own weight. Lean to the side, more or less randomly, and some one prop another. Create a random bonds, tens to hundreds stalks (several square decimetres), although that alone would not already cope with their own weight, but with the support of "near standing comrades" the tilting is suspended. In close contact will take effect van der Waals forces (surface tension of water) and a temporary volume is for some time significantly solidified. The situation would be called "delayed domino effect", "house of cards" or "teepee". Repeatedly wetting and drying plants may on touched parts become adhered, and may not bend to the ground already up to the harvest.  Arises something like "glued domino" (glued house of cards).


Phase 4 - Butterfly effect.

       As a butterfly may operate morning dew, rain, wind, storm, lightning. Just as a matter of interest, as well as just appointed morning dew will cause increase in weight for example above-ground parts of wheat to a thousand tons per square kilometer (10 tonnes per hectare), the equivalent of 1 mm of precipitation. That is really a heavy "Butterfly". Rain may put into the total amount of wheat stalks moisture weight round 5 times higher. Very often lodging (damaging, weakening) (initial) occurs within a few hours, mostly in wet conditions, even if there are certain exceptions. But in most cases, weakening and lodging (damaging, weakening) continues on less affected areas gradually more and more away from the point of the strike up to the harvest. As the first bend to the ground just stalks on the most affected areas - a few percent, before the harvest are lodged (damaged, weakened) tens of percent. Sometimes even 90.


Phase 5 - Domino effect..

      Relatively simple and understandable process during that are still standing bunches of stalks gradually bending down one over each other. While there is likely not only during that any falling stalks bunch knocks down at least one more. To the ground are falling many kilograms of material per square meter from an average height half a meter, and may create considerable air flow, which may significantly forcefully operate on standing stalks and their bundles. The testimony of a similar phenomenon, perhaps one of the fractals at Stonehenge - witnesses described gradual, but quick bending of stalks to the ground within a few minutes, between that, with no wind in close proximity, moved something like whirlwind and dust. This created the impression that directly inside that crop field moved an oriented whirlwind, caused by an unknown source and energy, that gradually caused all that lodging (damaging, weakening). Witnesses amazed from the happening observed did not realize that to the ground were falling relatively quickly several tons of material, which itself was able to create some air and dust whirlwinds and generate measurable forces, that would significantly contribute to the achievement of the work initiated. Through the domino effect is also possible to explain that otherwise at first sight very difficult understandable fact that sometimes (very rarely) is possible in some of Crop Circles find bunches of stalks very regularly arranged one over each other. The same obviously applies to completely irregular shapes of lodged (damaged, weakened) crop, where is possible observe something like that much more frequently. It's just sad confirmation of that relatively demonstrable fact (also quite sad) that the vast majority of UFOlogists, alien believers and mystery investigators who have ever dealt with crop circles, have never visited nor observed any common, irregularly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop in their whole life. Photo 5 - author own photo.


Summary of processes involved in the chronology of the lodging (damaging, weakening) crop development.

Phase 1 - Exposition.

Phase 2 - The weakening of stems

Phase 3 - van der Waals (surface tension of water, adhesion and cohesion)

Phase 4 - Butterfly effect

Phase 5 - Domino effect

Timing of The chronology processes.

Phase 1 - fraction of a second to several seconds.

Phase 2 - several days to weeks, possible more than two months.

Phase 3 - several hours to days.

Phase 4 - several seconds to minutes (even longer).

Phase 5 - several minutes to hours (even longer).


Phase 2 and 3 may be almost unseparated, without any sharp boundaries. Phase 4 and 5 may be of course sometimes much longer, and by some specific examples, even one very typical from the year 2011, may be that mentioned fact very well documented. Will appear in some of next continuation.


Physical and chemical (biological) processes involved in the various stages of development of lodging (damaging, weakening) plants.

1 - electrical engineering (induction, current conduction, resonance and interference of electromagnetic waves), mechanics (pressure and shock wave, earth's surface vibrations, resonance and interference of mechanical vibrations of ground surface, in air and crop surface - wind waves and circles), electrochemistry (the consequences of electric current passing through the soil solutions and plants tissues, chemistry, thermochemistry, pyrolysis, redox reactions, elimination of short-term radicals and temporary waste products of electrochemical reactions with high oxidation number, formed in plants and soil

2 - chemistry, biochemistry, biological and physiological processes in the plant, the behavior of plants in conditions very similar to the effects of transplantation shock, eliminating the effects of harmful chemicals from Phase 1, phytopathology (the consequences of harmful chemicals = less resistance of weakened plants against all plant also animal pests)

3 - mechanics, phytopathology (continued), stochastic processes, physical phenomena (v.d.W. forces, surface tension of water, adhesion and cohesion)

4 - mechanics (initialization process of phase 5), physical phenomena, primarily the process of overcoming van der Waals forces of adhesion and cohesion

5 - mechanics, the process of temporary transformation of potential energy into the kinetic energy, aerodynamics (temporary airflow caused by falling bunches of stalks and its temporary action of force into other still standing bunches of stalks)


Final note: Domino effect may cause a noticeable refinement of originally not too evenly "exposed" edge of the circle. On the margin already stand much more resistant bunches of significantly less damaged and weakened stalks than that in the middle. Their inclination to the ground may already cause just combined weight of many other stalks, inclined due to the domino effect. Otherwise, they would probably withstand upright until the harvest. On the contrary, other, weaker, reaching even more away from the the center than others, will remain standing because the groups of falling stalk volumes already missed them, or did not reach them. Photo 6 - the accompanying diagram shows a red area of hypothetical pattern strongly affected, green unaffected. The spiral illustrates the domino effect in progress from the center to edge up to the point where it stops.


That would be from today's monothematic article The Chronology everything so far. What next? Maybe some surprise, maybe not...


Jan Ledecky







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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by


Jan Ledecky