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a commentary of the www.sarden.cz administrator:
Mystery solved, we would like to exclaim. The true is, that our external correspondent with his explanation of crop circles shows a clear, logical, and it seems also logically acceptable solution. (Many thanks. J.L.)
CONSIDERATION: Crop Circles 2/2
Some possibilities of pattern creation - continue
Formations of regular patterns occur only in very rare cases, one of several millions. Before their creating there become randomly and seemingly without any logical reasons, to combination even more than only two conditions matching to generation of regular pattern. It is possible to use an analogy from chemistry - reactions between atoms and compounds occur when two particles collide - atoms, molecules, ions or radicals (there then happen exchanges of electrons between them and creating or changing chemical bond). Reactions for which would be necessary suppose contact just three, or even more particles would not be realizable at all, because they would have totally insignificant yield. Creation of regular patterns may be considered as an equivalent collisioning three or more particles. In addition to lightning discharge and crop on that place there must coexist probably some other, difficult definable random effects. It has really only a minimum yield - common irregularly lodged (damaged, weakened) crop there are an estimated more million km square per year in the world, areas of regular shapes occupy only several thousands of square meters.
One reason is also possible that it was an extremely strong discharge, which occurs only a few times per season. Some lightning discharges are many thousands times stronger than that regular, much more frequent, presented in every storm many thousands of occurrences. As another, very randomly occurring phenomenon is conceivable that (some) regular patterns can create during no wind, after the event "The Bolt From The Blue", positively charged cloud to ground lightning, a huge energy, impacting tens of kilometers from the cloud, unimaginably higher power transmit against "ordinary".
Rain, in the case of storm there is falling water sometimes thousands of tons per square kilometer within minutes through the air to ground and winds over 100 km/h, accompanying ordinary lightnings. Any symmetrical consequences of that lightning discharges considerably "fluff" or at least "shake up". It is impossible to seek for any witnesses, because anyone who would be watching that by his own eyes on that place, by a few fractions of a second, already never anywhere anything observe neither testify, and installations of time-lapse cameras near crop fields are not located too much yet.
A storm with lightning is best protecting itself from and against any eye-witnesses and any other random observers, and reliably drive away them as far as possible from the "crime scene", or even offhand completely liquidate them on that place. Something would probably be able to describe about it wetland animals not far from the location of described impact of lightning from the previous article. Two of them had taken place directly into that wetland - 18 and 58 thousand of amperes. Not at all excluded, that some frogs, that were exactly present there, definitely terminated croaking. But as it was found a few days later on-site investigation, there were remaining even enough of them.
Exactly the same way like frogs would terminate his croaking also anyone on that place just on that time present circlemaker. Perhaps at least something they realize that simple-minded individuals as a very strong warning. It is even quite possible, that any of the declared circlemakers (without thereby adding documented evidence ever been) in a really similar way sometime on a field really their croaking terminated. All the theories presented here are built on the assumption, that in fact no circlemakers exist and never existed (thankfully for them), with a few really absolutely very rare exceptions. In the vast majority of cases they are only circlemakers-self-claiming, self-applause, flaunty, who only boastfully self-declare to be authors of creations of someone entirely else. Among them were also one of the first known "company", Doug&Dave. Oh, Mrs. Bower. A lesson for all wives: a fact, that your husband would be time to time during the nights "losed", or "traceable with difficulty", i.e. that was likely now and then "spent a penny", would never make him nerd, noodle or an idiot in the public eye. If anyone starts rummage too much, is not excluded at all, that eventually makes him much greater noodle, than it could be ever. Even in the public eye. Even with a friend. Maybe they were "shooting marbles" together there, but definitely they were not creating circles there. Possible, some rolled (lodged (damaged, weakened)) crop there would have been left thanks to their "game". Certainly they were not there at the time, when the circles were really developed there, because after that they would return from there home only in a wooden chest. Perhaps they had prefer to admit immediately, that they were "playing games" there together. Today it is fairly modern, it is called alternative culture. Only that Mrs. B. would be very surprised. Photo clearly demonstrates, how would look everyone fictional cropcirclemaker after a real meeting with that, who is the only one creator of Crop Circles in the fields. Foto 6. By the way, on this photo is also clearly observable on the tree "a signature of main culprit"
Appendix: Note in the preceding paragraph shall not apply to serious research. For example, when a group of people from the agricultural school or university decides to convince by attempt, whether it is such a thing possible. Such researchers is not necessary to call as circlemakers or cropcirclemakers. In this case, it is a serious scientific exploration of the feasibility of a project.
final offer - possible include in future a new term to some glossary of medicinal (psychiatry) terminology: circlemaker, cropcirclemaker = "village idiot".
The consequences of discharges described earlier led first to the lodging (damaging, weakening) of several square meters - the first noticeable changes occurred until ten days after discharge. Gradually, day by day there were added another areas, until finally just before the harvest had been lodged (damaged, weakened) an estimated 25-30% of the entire field (next photo in the previous article), on that was the electric current through tramlines distributed also in many locations, where did not the discharges alone appear at all.
Presumption of current conducting on tractor tracks is reasonably supported by the fact, that lodging (damaging, weakening) relatively accurately follows the direction of tracks, on such a statistically significant percentage of any air and land photos from around the world, that mere chance can be relatively reliably excluded. There are 7 such similar localities present on the Foto 7 (all www.geograph.org.uk). On Google Maps it is possible to find thousands of similar scenes around the world, on the images showing Crop Circles possible find hundreds of similar locations not far from the regular patterns or directly in them. Foto 8 This photo is not possible find on internet, it is from the book Pictograms in the Czech Republic and Earth energy system - Beauty of the Crop Symbols in Moravia 2000 - 2006, There is possible to see very typical irregular lodging (damaging, weakening), accompanying that pattern, whose significant part follows quite closely the tramlines. Some areas of irregular lodging (damaging, weakening) in this photo are characterized by other very interesting properties, typical for crop flattened (damaged, weakened) after the Lightning Discharges, that will be described in some further continuation.
In addition, the fact that very often flattened (damaged, weakened) crop became first near the center of quarter-bends, created by tractors near the field margins, where there may be the highest intensity of electric current (integral), thanks to that mostly damaged plants. In some cases is crop lodged (damaged, weakened) only there, and already nowhere else. Photo of the first lodged (damaged, weakened) crop in the previous article was taken at the place, where the tramlines are coming together, thus the intensity of power may be also increased. Very interesting phenomenon of lodging (damaging, weakening) near tramlines is the fact, that although the major part of the damaging energy was probably conducted by them, plants in the immediate vicinity of the tramlines are lodged (damaged, weakened) almost never. Almost without exception, lodged (damaged, weakened) area always starts up to a distance of at least 20-30 cm from them. Even in the fields, that lodged (damaged, weakened) almost completely - although possible, that plants close to the margin received the highest portion of energy. Possible, that the plants closer to the tramlines (there grows nothing), can more easily get rid of that harmful chemicals, "dilute it", and recover faster. As one of the common lodging (damaging, weakening) causes is in the literature reported over-fertilize with nitrogen, but then they should be flattened (damaged, weakened) plants closest to the tracks, where appear the highest surpluses. Here is image Foto 9 (England, geograph.co.uk), where is possible clearly observe slowed grain growth (oats, greener - distinctly delayed ripening) in close proximity to tramlines several hundred meters from the probable impact of the discharge point, where is the crop significantly flattened (damaged, weakened). Greener plants near the tramlines do not appear to have a slightest tendency to lodging (damaging, weakening). Plants that are closest to the tramlines, will never be flattened (damaged, weakened), perhaps with some exceptions, which are well below the statistical error.
Very often crop lodges only in the largest distance from the track Foto 10, in the middle between them, where conducted energies add effects. In the middle between the tracks is the largest concentration of harmful substances and thus the plants have the least possibility get rid of them by the roots to the soil and so at least partially eliminate them. The concentration of pollutants and damaged plants there is maximal. All the phenomena described here can be observed in addition to any places with irregular flattened (damaged, weakened) crop also in a small distance of almost all regular patterns, documented by their researchers, however, if such a place on their photos, cutted off and separated from all their surroundings, ever get there. In the largest extent just before the harvest, when the explorers had almost no interest of them, photographs have been taken yet long ago. Some crop patterns in themselves are combinations of regular and irregular shapes of lodged (damaged, weakened) crop, so at least there. Another very similar effect is the fact, that very often is after a lightning exactly midway between the tracks is the vegetation greenest, least ripened - thanks to the highest dose of damaging energy exhibits the most significant slowdown of ripening. Very often precisely in these locations lodging (damaging, weakening) becomes first. Foto 11 On the photo below just begins the crop lodging (damaging, weakening) in the midway between the tracks on the greener places, and at the same place photographed later is lodged (damaged, weakened) (estimated a month later). Alone pattern lodged (damaged, weakened) long before, because it received a "direct hit", but some current were added and subtracted, so lodged (damaged, weakened) and staying crop alternate location.
As a basic principle of creation some patterns of incredible regularity and symmetry is probably possible, that to their formation participates resonance and interference (mechanical and electromagnetic). In addition to these two phenomena, some figures may show momentary principle of superposition (immediate vector addition), sometimes there seems to become with no obvious cause to immediate reversal of currents, sometimes there may take place penetration of forces, sometimes the simple addition and subtraction of voltages and currents (i.e. energy multiplication or division). Corona surrounding the Return Stroke as a continuous cylindrical sheath, precisely in a circle, see accompanying diagram Corona Model, can have up to a certain distance from the lightning channel negative value, then back positive (simplified explanation, described in many specialized articles, such as in http://www.lightning.ece.ufl.edu/). The picture is taken from Lightning Electromagnetics, , 1990, p. 4. Reversing of polarity can sometimes occur probably due to an underground structure (conductive), possibly by induction in that, sometimes by the action of bipolar lightnings, whose currents may appear every time differently due to momentary mechanical condition of the plants, add and subtract with each other. In the simplest shapes - simple solitary circle - would be explained its occurrence even just by using the phenomena of induction and the current conduction, but also only mechanical effects. There are even more simple shapes than circles - lines - which can be explained only as a consequence of current conduction. They will be described more in any further continuation.
Some very simple shapes, circles, or rather their simple, a little unsuccesful imitations, may indeed occur immediately or very quickly after the discharge. Kornkreise Die Geschichte eines Phanomens, color attachment Foto 12 - Japan. Foto 13, Foto 14, 2010 United Kingdom Wiltshire Bratton White Horse (Westbury). Well here explorers Crop Circles had really diminished in their effort, such units may find in the fields around the world really everybody, because there exist millions of them yearly, and it is very easy to imagine, that may arise after a single lightning discharge into the field, whereas presenting the mechanical effects of discharges on Foto 1 in chapter 2/1.
Thanks to that, what huge quantity of energy contain some extremely strong lightning discharges, may result in finding of "something" immediately after the storm. Comment on photo 12 "Already in 1986, after a night full of unusual power failures found in the swamp at Nisikavaka in northern Japan circle in the reeds". What do the Crop Circles explorers want more of? In order to announced "unexplained blackouts" have added some by lightning executed dead body of circlemaker with charred plank, rope, cap and trunks, to make Crop Circle explorers believe, that "it something inexplicable incomprehensible electromagnetic", what was present on that location, was only "ordinary" thunderstorm, that take place annually around the world tens of thousands, and lightning, of which hits per year in fields and grassy areas around the world, one billion? Lightning storm is not only one of the most extreme existing weather phenomena, but even one of the most extreme physical phenomena at all (there are websites where this question is described much more detailed). At random can be named steepness of the edge of the current pulse risetime, especially in some of the subsequent strokes, that have already well "swept and overriden" and ionized path, even more than 200 000 amperes per microsecond, a single ones millionth of second.
Actually just a matter of interest: Is not excluded that in the lightning channel, especially during the steepest part of the start-up current rise curve, the volume concentration of energy (meant energy dissipate in the area unit per time unit) even greater, than during a supernova explosion (first 10 seconds), and if not, then probably only slightly minor.
AAt this point is possible view several photographs showing some mainly mechanical effects of lightning discharges - Foto 15,.. Without needing some complex physical and electrical calculations, after viewing of several such images it possible to conclude, that "the lightning has a power" (certainly at least to create in the center of the patterns "a pit for the pole"). It is the mechanical force, and also is necessary to realize, that a comparable amount of energy the discharge radiates as electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths. In amounts that are able noticeable damage plants, probably only by the induction - very precisely in a circle shape, at distances up to tens of meters. Also possible conduction of currents through the soil into the root systems, conductivity of ionised air, also corona discharge may take place and may conduct noticeable currents in a precise circle shape some meters around the lightning channel.
Next just a matter of interest - in an amounts that is noticeable by sensitive measurement techniques as electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths - at a distance of not only thousands of miles, but light-years, it depends only on the sensitivity of measurement techniques and the diameter of the telescope. Photons that once get on the road through space, will never stop.
Can be expressed very simply, that approximately one-third transmits the discharge in the form of mechanical energy, a third as heat energy (IR radiation) and a third as electromagnetic radiation, i.e. the order of approximately equal value. More detailed data would greatly exceed the scope of this paper and readers must refer to the scientific literature.
Over the world there occur within a single year approximately one billion lightning discharges into the fields, grasslands and in their immediate vicinity. Is rather surprising, they have no more serious effects, this may be due to the ground surface moisture and its conductivity. The lower the resistance of the conductor, the less energy is released by the current passing through it (second power).
In some further continuation of this small series about the causes of crop flattening (damaging, weakening) will be shown, that places, where the crop will weaken, because there has occurred a lightning discharge and crop there in the future quite logically lodges - whether regularly or irregularly, is possible to search for some time before lodging (damaging, weakening), even without the assistance of any measurement technique. Thus can be carried out the identification of pattern before its complete visualisation - do not believe?
Amongst others dear Occam will be convinced, that if his razor shaving forces any random and nonrandom observer to the conclusion, that some actions were carried out by people, then it is necessary without hesitation use help of Ledecky exception: Occam's razor does not apply, if thanks to its application is concluded, that anytime, anywhere, at any place in the world and in the whole universe performed any existing human (fool) any creative activity repeatedly, in secrecy, without any disclosure, conspire, without any publicity and especially COMPLETELY FREE OF CHARGE. (includes E.T.) Further, it is necessary to realize, that in the case of a group of people against lone individuals immediately exponentially increase the possibility of disclosure, in the case of involvement any of the conspiracy chain member's wife ruthlessly jumps to the value 1 (100 % probability of disclosure, no exceptions exist)
Another important rule states: If ever there anywhere in the world is found any interesting object, although even time being from unclear and difficult to definable reasons, there will always be at least one, frequently also more mentally ill individuals, who are claiming themselves as authors of the works. Here is of course considered mainly the issue of crop circles, but also extends to other human creations and activities. Just possible ask at any mental home, how many "pieces" there are of Napoleon, Mozart, Beethoven, Hitler, Picasso, Herr Gott, Churchill, Elvis, Shakespeare, Nero the Emperor, The Bumblebee, Sokrates, Sklodowski, Einstein, Gandhi, Desdemona and any other positively and negatively famous personalities of the world and the universe history.
That's all today! HUH!
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