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lightning discharge
CCD spectral sensitivity
(with particular attention to the sensitivity in infrared range)
crop circles - storms, lightnings, clouds RSS feed

I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work. Thomas A. Edison

I am a raging alcoholic and a raging addict and I didn't want to see my kids do the same thing. Ozzy Osbourne

We've arranged a civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology. Carl Sagan

CCD sensors do not haveIR filtered enough

For the vast majority of images it does not matter, but when shooting in low light conditions the camera's sensor able to record something that is completely invisible to the naked eye - Infrared Light.


IR filter

placed before the sensor of common photographic apparatuses, does not filters out all infrared radiation. As already noted, in the vast majority of images it does not matter, but in places, where there may be of a huge residual heat (several hundreds kilowatt hours), accumulated underground, and thus there maybe from time to time a small outburst of warm gases (absolutely invisible by eyes), then camera or camcorder able to record various "ghosts ", invisible to the naked eye.


Spectral sensitivity of classical (Ag - halide ), also color cinematographic films, fully guaranteed ending at 690nm, not any more. A similar random record of processes over 700nm is therefore completely eliminated with them.


The fact that in the photographs (acquired by digital devices) may be present "something", what on that place was definitely not present, among other things, may also be involved remains of static electricity, although harmless, but still strong enough, to cause failures and outages of any electronic devices. All recording and information storage in such devices is realized through the transfer of electrons. On the site with residual electrostatic charge after lightning discharges, there is "over-supply" of charge (even thousands of megajoules; failure of the instrument may cause dust particles carrying a few millionths of Joule). Disorders of microelectronics through the electrostatic charge is very easy to simulate and observe for example at close proximity to Van der Graaf generator (apparatus, not music band). Anyone who would give up running in the same room with a desktop computer such as a voltage source 3000 - 10000V, or Tesla transformer, and let him continue in action for some time ("sparking"), can be almost certain, that the computer reboots in a maximum of 10 minutes and without shutting down the high voltage source will be hardly possible to continue the PC in the running. The air is in fact after a certain time so much saturated with highly ionized molecules and dust particles, that it is strongly violated a basic rule of operation of each microelectronic device -

"Protect against static electricity"







for some unexplained objects in the photographs from anywhere can participate also multiple reflections between the objective lenses. Today's complicated zoom optical structures contain already more than 16 members, and no longer even remotely resemble for example, a memorable three-lens Tessar objective from Carl - Zeiss of blessed memory.


Another possibility to explain the emergence of hardly comprehensible objects in the photographs is possible movement of objects completely out focus - dust, feathers, insects. It is necessary to realize that almost all people who deal with research of crop circles are not photographer-professionals. No wonder, that their lenses are sometimes dirty with sandwich. (while shooting in the field things can happen, the weather may not always be ideal, and any photographs certainly performs better documentary purposes than none)


The only clear exception in regular patterns photography (not only regular) therefore is Klaus Leidorf, but, of course, he is at first a perfect photographer-professional, particularly in air photo, photographing of the patterns is for him just something like "by-product" and is not interested in their research at all.


Last, certainly not insignificant group of mysterious objects on the photographs from crop fields may be constituted of normal human fakes. Mean photo - fakes, not Crop Circle - fakes. Such things simply become sometimes, and there will not be more mention about that here.


In the course of time became a regular rule, and thus a sad fact, that in the vicinity of the Crop Circles phenomenon over time started to appear many strange and doubtful persons, which should rather be placed in madhouses that were established for similar purposes. It is also necessary count with a variety of fakes and authors of not very reliable claims.


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This page was prepared, and all the facts and theories presented here were very thoroughly, closely and in detail experimentally examined by


Jan Ledecky


It is so pleasant to come across people more stupid than ourselves. We love them at once for being so.  J.K.Jerome
Being an optimist after you've got everything you want doesn't count. Kin Hubbard
If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?  A.Einstein